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Impacts of flexible demand on the reliability of power systems
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6870-6104
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electric Power and Energy Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6000-9363
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electromagnetic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2964-7233
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Demand response provides flexibility to power systems through adjusting the power consumption. This study investigates the impact of flexible demands on the system reliability with real-time price-based demand response. It assumes that the power demand is sensitive to nodal price and the price is communicated to consumers as soon as it is cleared on market. The uncertainties of nodal price and potential flexibility are considered. Models are proposed for the optimal operation of a power system with and without demand response, respectively. The proposed models are evaluated through application to a 6-bus system using Monte Carlo simulation. The result shows that the reliability indices LOLP and EENS are improved for the system and for each bus when the demand is sensitive to nodal price. Moreover, the nodal prices decrease, reflecting a more efficient operation and a lower electricity price charged on consumers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018.
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-250468DOI: 10.1109/ISGT.2018.8403357Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85050701617OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-250468DiVA, id: diva2:1308008
Conference
2018 IEEE Power & Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT)
Note

QC 20190520

Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Planning and Operation of Demand-Side Flexibility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Planning and Operation of Demand-Side Flexibility
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Power systems are changing with growing penetration of non-dispatchable renewable generation and increased demand of electric energy. More generation, transmission or distribution capacities are needed to balance the varying production and higher consumption. Demand-side flexibility is a potential solutionto tackle those challenges. By shifting the consumption time and temporarily increase or decrease the power demand, the demand-side flexibility can help to integrate more wind and solar energy in the system, alleviate network congestion and postpone the investment for grid reinforcement. Therefore, technical and regulatory measures are undergoing in many countries to encourage demand response and engage customers.

On the other hand, unlocking the flexibility will introduce more complexityand uncertainty on demand side. This would result in difficulties for different actors in power systems and power markets to make optimal decisionsin their planning and operation. The thesis addresses the problem by proposing methods to support the decision making of actors on demand side. Firstly, it develops models to facilitate residential customers and commercial electric vehicle fleet operators scheduling their shiftable appliances for reducing electricity cost. The willingness of households for responding to time-varying price is taken into account. Results from Stockholm Royal Seaport project are analysed to demonstrate such willingness. Secondly, the thesis develops models for the short-term planning of retailers and balance responsible players. Different approaches are deployed under price-taker and price-maker assumptions respectively. The planning concerns the price sensitivityof end customers and the risk related with certain bidding strategies.Thirdly, the thesis proposes models to coordinate and aggregate the flexible charging power of electric vehicles to provide regulation service on the balancing market. The models encompass the decision process from day-aheadplanning to real-time operation management. The proposed models in the thesis are based on the rules of Nordic electricity market and could be further developed for adapting to other market frameworks. Stochastic programmingis applied to address the uncertainties about consumption and market behaviours.In addition, the thesis discusses the impacts of demand response interms of generation cost, system reliability and market price. It shows that a widely implemented demand response can reduce the total generation cost, improve the reliability of supply and decrease the market price.

Abstract [sv]

Elkraftsystemet förändras med ökad förnybar produktion och ökad efterfrågan på elektrisk energi. Mer produktions-, transmissions- och distributionskapacitet behövs för att balansera varierande produktion och högre konsumtion. Förbrukningsflexibilitet kan vara en del i lösningen på dessa utmaningar. Genom att ändra tid för elanvändningen och tillfälligt öka eller minska lasten kan förbrukningsflexibilitet bidra till att integrera mer vind- och solkraft i systemet, undvika tillfällig överbelastning av nätet och minska behovet av nyinvesteringar i nätet. Därför pågår i många länder en utveckling av både teknik och regelverk för att uppmuntra förbrukningsflexibilitet och engagera konsumenterna.

Å andra sidan medför ökad flexibilitet större komplexitet och osäkerhet på förbrukningssidan. Detta resulterar i svårigheter för olika aktörer i elsystemet och på elmarknaden att fatta optimala beslut om planering och drift. Denna avhandling studerar detta problem genom att föreslå metoder för att stödja beslutsprocessen för aktörer på förbrukningssidan. Till att börja med föreslås modeller för att underlätta planeringen av den flexibla elförbrukningen för hushållskunder och elbilpooler så att kostnaderna minimeras. Hänsyntas till hushållens villighet att anpassa sig till varierande elpriser. Resultat från Norra Djurgårdsstaden i Stockholm analyseras för att få en indikation på kundernas beteende. Vidare utvecklas korttidsplaneringsmodeller för att optimera budgivningen för elhandlare och balansansvariga. Olika metoder föreslås för pristagare respektive prissättare. Planeringen beaktar slutkundernas priskänslighet samt riskerna som är förenade med olika budstrategier. Slutligen föreslås modeller för att koordinera och aggregera laddning av elbilar för att tillhandahålla kapacitet till reglermarknaden. Modellerna omfattar beslutsprocessen från planeringen dagen före till realtid. De föreslagna modellerna baseras på reglerna för den nordiska elmarknaden och kan vidareutvecklas för att anpassas till andra marknadsregler. Stokastisk programmering tillämpas för att hantera osäkerheten om förbrukning och marknadens beteende. Dessutom diskuteras hur förbrukningsflexibilitet påverkar produktionskostnader, systemets tillförlitlighet och marknadspris. Avhandlingen visar att om förbrukningsflexibilitet genomförs i stor skala så kan leveranssäkerheten förbättras och elpriserna reduceras.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 87
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:70
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-261674 (URN)978-91-7873-333-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-06, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-10-11 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-10-11Bibliographically approved

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