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Simulation of fixed versus on-demand station-based feeder operations
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4556-4382
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4106-3126
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4506-0459
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Motivated by lower predicted operational costs, and opportunities for efficient real-time control, automated, centrally coordinated vehicles have in many studies shown great potential as a shared resource within public transit. One particular use case that has grown in popularity over recent years is the application of smaller, automated shuttles as an on-demand feeder to mass transit solution. To investigate differences in fixed versus on-demand operational policies, this paper discusses the operational design and analysis of an automated feeder solution. To this end, a simulation model of demand-responsive transit is developed and incorporated into the transit simulation model BusMezzo. An estimation of operational cost reductions with vehicle automation motivates the case study of two fleets that are deemed comparable with respect to service capacity and operational cost per hour. Results from simulation studies of varying levels of demand indicate that the on-demand policy reduces average total passenger travel times and, for the larger fleet, lowers average vehicle-kilometers traveled per passenger relative fixed service operations. Without achieving a competitive reduction in waiting times, however, on-demand coordination often underperforms with respect to level-of-service and reliability when compared with fixed service operations. When there is slack in fixed service capacity, the performance of the on-demand service outperforms the fixed service with respect to both level-of-service and vehicle utilization only for the lowest demand level tested and the smaller fleet. Average total system costs under on-demand operations improve, however, for the lowest demand levels and the larger fleet due to a reduction in vehicle-kilometers traveled relative a fixed service. When fixed service capacity is exceeded it is found that on-demand coordination outperforms fixed operations with respect to average level-of-service, vehicle-kilometers traveled, and total system costs. Furthermore, when planned service capacity is exceeded, it is found that total passenger waiting time is more equally distributed under on-demand operations relative to fixed.

Keywords [en]
demand-responsive transit, feeder, simulation, automated vehicles
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251018OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-251018DiVA, id: diva2:1315432
Projects
SMART - Simulation and Modeling of Autonomous Road Transport
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, H66430
Note

QC 20190514

Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Simulation based evaluation of flexible transit
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulation based evaluation of flexible transit
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Transport authorities are faced with the challenge of making effective use of existing transportation infrastructure under increasing needs of transport accessibility, sustainability, and safety. The ongoing growth and adoption of shared mobility options, the anticipation of automated vehicles, and the increased availability of real-time data brought on with the developments of Intelligent Transport Systems, have all inspired many innovations in public transit design. The integration of these technologies in existing public transit holds great potential for operational planning and control, but is also notoriously difficult to evaluate. In the included papers, flexible operational policies that make use of real-time data and connected vehicles are developed and assessed through the extension of an existing public transit simulation framework, BusMezzo.

Paper I explores the incorporation of flexibility in fixed urban transit via real-time short-turning, a fleet management strategy not often studied in a real-time context. In this paper, a decision rule for when and where a short-turn should occur based on predicted passenger costs is developed and evaluated in a case study of a bidirectional urban bus line in Stockholm, Sweden.

Paper II focuses on the design and analysis of an automated feeder service. In this paper an extension of BusMezzo with a module for simulating a variety of flexible transit operations is presented. Estimated reductions in on-board crew costs with vehicle automation motivate a case study of two vehicle fleets where a fully demand-responsive operational policy is compared against fixed route and schedule operations.

Abstract [sv]

Transportmyndigheter står inför utmaningen att effektivt utnyttja befintlig transportinfrastruktur under växande behov av tillgänglighet, hållbarhet och säkerhet. Den pågående tillväxten och anammandet av delad mobilitet, förväntningarna på automatiserade fordon, samt den ökade tillgången till realtidsdata tack vare utvecklingen av Intelligenta Transportsystem, har inspirerat många innovationer inom kollektivtrafikdesign. Att integrera dessa tekniker inom befintliga kollektivtrafiksystem innebär en stor potential för operativ planering och styrning, men effekterna av dessa satsningar är notoriskt svåra att utvärdera. De inkluderade uppsatserna utvecklar flexibla operativa strategier som utnyttjar realtidsdata och uppkopplade fordon, och utvärderar dessa genom en utvidgning av ett existerande simuleringsramverk för kollektivtrafik, BusMezzo.

Uppsats I utforskar en utökning av flexibilitet inom kollektivtrafik i tätort med fasta rutter och tidtabeller genom realtids-kortvändning, en strategi för att samordna fordon som inte ofta studeras inom en realtidskontext. I artikeln utvecklas en beslutsregel för när och var en kortvändning ska ske baserad på förväntade passagerarkostnader. Beslutsregeln utvärderas i en fallstudie av en befintlig busslinje i Stockholm.

Uppsats II fokuserar på design och analys av en automatiserad matartjänst. I artikeln presenteras en utvidgning av BusMezzo i form av en modul för att simulera olika varianter av flexibel operativ styrning. Förväntade sänkningar av bemanningskostnader genom automatisering av fordon motiverar en fallstudie av två fordonsflottor, där en fullt efterfrågestyrd operativ strategi jämförs med drift enligt fast rutt och tidtabell.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 27
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 1919
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-251403 (URN)978-91-7873-232-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-06-13, B1, Brinellvägen 23, Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, H66430Vinnova, H6643
Note

QC20190514

Available from: 2019-05-14 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved

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Leffler, DavidJenelius, ErikCats, OdedBurghout, Wilco

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