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Subwavelength-diameter Silica Wire and Photonic Crystal Waveguide Slow Light Coupling
KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och tillämpad fysik, MAP.
KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Parallelldatorcentrum, PDC. KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC).
KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och tillämpad fysik, MAP.
2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Active and Passive Electronic Components, ISSN 0882-7516, E-ISSN 1563-5031, Vol. 2007, s. 78602-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Counter-directional coupling between subwavelength-diameter silica wire and single-line-defect two-dimensional photonic crystal slab waveguide is studied numerically using parallel three-dimensional finite-different time-domain method. By modifying silica wire properties or engineering photonic crystal waveguide dispersion band, the coupling central wavelength can be moved to the slow light region and the coupling efficiency improves simultaneously. One design gives 82 peak power transmission from silica wire to photonic crystal waveguide over an interacting distance of 50 lattice constants. The group velocity is estimated as 1/35 of light speed in vacuum.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2007. Vol. 2007, s. 78602-
Emneord [en]
Finite difference method, Photonic crystals, Power transmission, Time domain analysis, Waveguides, Wire, Coupling central wavelength, Photonic crystal waveguides, Waveguide dispersion band
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8025DOI: 10.1155/2007/78602Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-38849182436OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8025DiVA, id: diva2:13234
Merknad
QC 20100923Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-02-22 Laget: 2008-02-22 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Silicon-based Photonic Devices: Design, Fabrication and Characterization
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Silicon-based Photonic Devices: Design, Fabrication and Characterization
2008 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The field of Information and Communication Technologies is witnessing a development speed unprecedented in history. Moore’s law proves that the processor speed and memory size are roughly doubling each 18 months, which is expected to continue in the next decade. If photonics is going to play a substantial role in the ICT market, it will have to follow the same dynamics. There are mainly two groups of components that need to be integrated. The active components, including light sources, electro-optic modulators, and detectors, are mostly fabricated in III-V semiconductors. The passive components, such as waveguides, resonators, couplers and splitters, need no power supply and can be realized in silicon-related semiconductors. The prospects of silicon photonics are particularly promising, the fabrication is mostly compatible with standard CMOS technology and the on-chip optical interconnects are expected to increase the speed of microprocessors to the next generation.

This thesis starts with designs of various silicon-based devices using finite-difference time-domain simulations. Parallel computation is a powerful tool in the modeling of large-scale photonic circuits. High Q cavities and resonant channel drop filters are designed in photonic crystal platform. Different methods to couple light from a single mode fiber to silicon waveguides are studied by coupled-mode theory and verified using parallel simulations. The performance of waveguide grating coupler for vertical radiation is also studied.

The fabrication of silicon-based photonic devices involves material deposition, E-beam or optical lithography for pattern defining, and plasma/wet-chemistry etching for pattern transfer. For nanometer-scaled structures, E-beam lithography is the most critical process. Depending on the structures of the devices, both positive resist (ZEP520A) and negative resist (maN2405) are used. The proximity and stitch issues are addressed by careful dose correction and patches exposure. Some examples are given including photonic crystal surface mode filter, micro-ring resonators and gold grating couplers. In particular, high Q (2.6×105), deep notch (40 dB) and resonance-splitting phenomenon are demonstrated for silicon ring resonators.

It is challenging to couple light into photonic integrated circuits directly from a single-mode fiber. The butt-coupled light-injecting method usually causes large insertion loss due to small overlap of the mode profiles and large index mismatch. Practically it is not easy to cleave silicon sample with smooth facet where the waveguide exposes. By adding gold gratings to the waveguides, light can be injected and collected vertically from single-mode fiber. The coupling efficiency is much higher. There is no need to cleave the sample. The access waveguides are much shortened and the stitch problem in E-beam lithography is avoided.

In summary, this thesis introduces parallel simulations for the design of modern large-scale photonic devices, addresses various issues with Si-based fabrication, and analyses the data from the characterization. Several novel devices using silicon nanowire waveguides and 2D photonic crystal structures have been demonstrated for the first time.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. s. 58
Serie
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2008:5
Emneord
Photonic Devices, Silicon Photonics, Parallel Computation, Nanofabrication, Electron Beam Lithography, Optical Characterisation
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4647 (URN)
Disputas
2008-03-07, N1, Electrum 3, Isafjordsgatan 28, Kista, 10:00
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad
QC 20100923Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-02-22 Laget: 2008-02-22 Sist oppdatert: 2010-09-23bibliografisk kontrollert

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