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Blockchain: fundamentet i en ny fastighetsmarknad?: En studie om digitala identiteter och tokens som verktyg för en likvid och transparent fastighetsmarknad
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
2019 (Swedish)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesisAlternative title
Blockchain: The Cornerstone of a New Real Estate Market? : A Study on Digital Identities and Tokens as Tools for a More Liquid and Transparent Market (English)
Abstract [sv]

Fastigheter identifieras av många som ett relativt illikvitt tillgångsslag vars information även ivissa avseenden kan anses vara opak för den öppna marknaden. Detta resulterar i långa ochkostsamma köp- och säljprocesser, där informationsasymmetrier mellan köpare och säljaremåste redas ut under en due diligence process. Fastighetsmarknaden präglas således av en delvisoönskad ineffektivitet orsakad av traditionella och konservativa processer. I en tid av storteknisk utveckling finner vi allt fler kreativa lösningar på problem vi tidigare inte mäktade medatt ta oss an. Blockchain har identifierats som en av de tekniker som potentiellt kan komma attförbättra såväl fastighetsmarknadens likviditet som transparens. Närmare bestämt diskuterarman en standardiserad informationshantering för fastigheter i form av digitala identiteter, menäven möjligheten att fragmentera ägandet och tillgängliggöra momentan handel viablockchainbaserade tokens. Dessa begrepp är ännu relativt outforskade och utgör såledesstudieämnet. Syftet med denna studie är därmed att redogöra för hur fastighetsmarknadenslikviditet- och transparensproblematik potentiellt kan avhjälpas genom ett fragmenterat ochtransparent fastighetsägande placerat på blockchain.Studiens akademiska förankring grundar sig i en omfattande litteraturstudie av begreppenlikviditet och transparens, men även bena ut betydelsen av due diligence och blockchain somhelhet. Resultatinsamlingen genomfördes via kvalitativa studier, där semistruktureradeintervjuer utgjorde mediet från vilken denna information insamlades. I studienidentifierades likviditet och transparens som två grundförutsättningar för en fungerande ocheffektiv marknadsplats. I fastighetsmarknaden finns det tydliga tecken på att problematiken gersig tillkänna i trögrörliga DD-processer och undanhållen informationen av hyresdata. Slutsatsenav studien kan sammanfattas som en brett överenskommen bild av potentialen hos såväl tokenssom digitala identiteter för att effektivisera marknaden och lösa dessa problem.Marknadsaktörerna menar dock att tekniken omges av för många orosmoln för att våga kastasig in med båda fötterna före. Med det sagt menar man inte att tekniken saknar framtid i branschen, snarare att fler tillämpade exempel samt ett tydligt ramverk för utförandet avtransaktioner i den nya marknadsmiljön måste bestämmas för att på så sätt etablera en trygghethos investerare.

Abstract [en]

Real estate is defined as a relatively illiquid asset, with a rather opaque and inaccessible flowof information. The result is long and costly acquisition and divestment processes, in whichinformational asymmetries is to be erased during the due diligence process. Real estate is thuscharacterized by a partially unwanted inefficiency caused by traditional and conservativeprocesses. However, in a time of rapid and extensive technological change, we seem to find anever-increasing amount of creative solutions to problems we previously could not manage.Among these alleged solutions we find blockchain, which by many has been identified as meanto improve both liquidity and transparency in real estate as an asset class. More specifically, thetopics of discussions have been digital identities and tokenization of real estate. Two termspossessing the potential to create standardized information management and fragmentedownership, which would enable instantaneous trade. These terms remain rather unchartedterritory and hence constitutes the subject of this study. The aim of this study is therefore todepict how the liquidity and transparency problems may be redressed by a fragmented andtransparent ownership structure placed on blockchain.The academic anchoring of the study is grounded in an extensive literature study aimed to definethe terms liquidity and transparency, but also define the meaning of due diligence andblockchain technology as a whole. The results were gathered through qualitative studies, inwhich semi-structured interviews constituted the instrument from which the information wascollected. The study identified liquidity and transparency as two cornerstones of a functioningand effective market. The evident problems related to liquidity and transparency in real estate,are to a great extent expressed via slow paced due diligence processes and non-disclosed rentalinformation. The study may be concluded as a broadly agreed upon view on the potential ofboth tokenization of real estate, as well as digital identities as effective means to enhanceliquidity and transparency. The respondents did however emphasize the current uncertaintyregarding blockchain as a severe hindrance for having enough confidence to whole-heartedly embrace the technology as a key element of the real estate market. With this being said, theydo not doubt its potential, rather inquiring an increased number of applied and successful usecases accompanied by a distinct regulatory framework for the conducting a transaction in thenew market environment. This would be an essential factor to instill the level of trust intransacting that investors require.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 65
Series
TRITA-ABE-MBT ; 19 178
Keywords [en]
Commercial real estate, liquidity, transparency, due diligence, blockchain, tokens, digital identities, smart contracts
Keywords [sv]
Kommersiella fastigheter, likviditet, transparens, due diligence, blockchain, tokens, digitala identiteter, smarta kontrakt
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-254809OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-254809DiVA, id: diva2:1335427
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-08-13 Created: 2019-07-05 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved

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