Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Ultra-low latency communication for 5G transport networks
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS). KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The fifth generation (5G) mobile communication system is envisioned to serve various mission-critical Internet of Thing (IoT) applications such as industrial automation, cloud robotics and safety-critical vehicular communications. The requirement of the end-to-end latency for these services is typically within the range between 0.1 ms and 20 ms, which is extremely challenging for the conventional cellular network with centralized processing. As an integral part of the cellular network, the transport network, referred to as the segment in charge of the backhaul of radio base stations or/and the fronthaul of remote radio unit, plays an especially important role to meet such a stringent requirement on latency.This thesis investigates how to support the ultra-low latency communications for 5G transport networks, especially for backhaul networks. First, a novel passive optical network (PON) based mobile backhaul is proposed and tailored communication protocols are designed to enhance the connectivity among adjacent base stations (BSs). Simulation results show that an extremely low latency (less than 1 ms packet delay) for communications among the BSs can be achieved, which thereby can be used to support fast handover for users with high mobility (e.g., vehicles).Furthermore, the thesis presents a fog computing enabled cellular networks (FeCN), in which computing, storage, and network functions are provisioned closer to end users, thus the latency on transport networks can be reduced significantly. In the context of FeCN, the high mobility feature of users brings critical challenges to maintain the service continuity with stringent service requirements. In the meanwhile, transmitting the associated services from the current fog server to the target one to fulfill the service continuity, referred to as service migration, has been regarded as a promising solution for mobility management. However, service migration cannot be completed immediately, and may lead to a situation where users experience loss of access to the service. To solve such issues, a quality-of-service (QoS) aware service migration strategy is proposed. The method is based on the existing handover procedures with newly introduced distributed fog computing resource management scheme to minimize the potential negative effects induced by service migration. The performance of the proposed schemes is evaluated by a case study, where realistic vehicle mobility pattern in the metropolitan network scenario of Luxembourg is used to reflect the real world environment. Results show that low end-to-end latency (e.g., 10 ms) for vehicular communication can be achieved with typical vehicle mobility. During service migration, both the traffic generated by migration and other traffic (e.g., control information, video) are transmitted via mobile backhaul networks. To balance the performance of the two kinds of traffic, a delay-aware bandwidth slicing scheme is proposed in PON-based mobile backhaul networks. Simulation results show that, with the proposed method, migration data can be transmitted successfully within a required time threshold, while the latency and jitter for non-migration traffic with different priorities can be reduced significantly.

Abstract [sv]

5:e generationens (5G) mobilnät förväntas stödja olika kritiska tillämpningar av Sakernas Internet (IoT), såsom industriell automation, moln-baserad robotik och säkerhetskritisk fordonskommunikation. Kravet på envägs totalfördröjning för dessa tjänster ligger typiskt i intervallet mellan 0,1 ms och 20 ms, vilket är extremt utmanande för det konventionella mobilnätet med centraliserad databearbetning. Transportnätet, det segment av nätet som är ansvarigt för sammankoppling av radiobasstationer (s.k. backhaul) och/eller anslutning av radioenheter (s.k. fronthaul), är en integrerad del av mobilnätet och spelar en särskilt viktig roll för att möta ett sådana stringenta krav på fördröjningen.Denna avhandling undersöker hur man kan stödja de kommunikation med ultralåga fördröjning för 5G-transportnät, speciellt för backhaul-nätverk. Först beaktas ett nytt passivt optiskt nätverk (PON) förmobil backhaul, och skräddarsydda kommunikationsprotokoll utformas för att förbättra uppkopplingen mellan alla angränsande basstationer (BS). Simuleringsresultat visar att en extremt låg fördröjning (mindre än 1 ms paketfördröjning) för kommunikation mellan basstationerna kan uppnås, vilket kan användas för att stödja snabb överlämning mellan basstationer (s.k. handover) för mobila användare med hög rörlighet (t.ex. fordon).Vidare presenterar avhandlingen ett dim-baserat (fog computing) mobilnät (FeCN), där databehandling, lagring och nätverksfunktioner tillhandahålls närmare slutanvändarna, vilket innebär att fördröjningen på transportnät kan minskas betydligt. I samband med FeCN är hantering av mobila användare en av de mest kritiska utmaningarna för användare som kännetecknas av hög rörlighet. Utmaningen är att upprätthålla tjänsten kontinuerligt och att uppfylla de stringenta tjänstekraven. Tjänstemigrering, dvs flytt av tjänster från en server till en annan på ett dynamiskt sätt, har betraktats som en lovande lösning för hantering av mobila användare. Tjänstemigrering kan dock inte slutföras omedelbart, vilket kan leda till en situation där användare upplever att de förlorar åtkomst till tjänsterna. För att lösa dessa frågor är föreslås en migreringsstrategi som beaktar tjänstekvaliteten (QoS). Metoden bygger på befintliga handover-procedurer med nyntroducerade resurshanteringssystem baserade på distribuerad fog computing, för att minimera de eventuella negativa effekter som induceras av tjänstemigrering. En fallstudie, baserad på ett realistiskt mobilitetsmönster för fordon i ett Luxemburg-scenario, genomförs med hjälp av simuleringsstudier för att utvärdera prestanda för de föreslagna systemen. Resultaten visar att låg fördröjning (t.ex., 10 ms) för fordonskommunikation kan uppnås med typisk fordonsmobilitet. Under tjänstemigrering skickas både trafiken genererad av migreringen och annan datatrafik (t.ex., kontrollinformation och video) via mobila backhaul-nätverk. För att balansera prestandan för de två typerna av trafik, föreslås ett system för bandreddsuppdelning i PON-baserade mobila backhaul-nätverk som tar fördröjning i beaktan. Simuleringsresultat visar att med den föreslagna metoden kan migreringsdata framgångsrikt överföras inom den tidsgräns som krävs, medan fördröjningen och fördröjningsvariationer v övrig trafik med olika prioriteringar kan minskas betydligt.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019.
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:59
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256503ISBN: 978-91-7873-243-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-256503DiVA, id: diva2:1346021
Public defence
2019-09-20, Sal 308, ELECTRUM, Kistagången 16, Kista, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-26 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Optical transport network architecture enabling ultra-low latency for communications among base stations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical transport network architecture enabling ultra-low latency for communications among base stations
2017 (English)In: 2017 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2017 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 7937094Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We propose a novel transport network architecture for mobile backhauling along with its tailored communication protocol to offer ultra-low latency. Results show that less than 0.5 milliseconds packet delay can be achieved for inter-base-station communications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keywords
Optical fiber communication, Optical fibers, Signal systems, Inter-base station, Low latency, Optical transport networks, Packet delay, Network architecture
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-212133 (URN)2-s2.0-85025827715 (Scopus ID)9781943580231 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exhibition, OFC 2017, Los Angeles, United States, 19 March 2017 through 23 March 2017
Note

QC 20170816

Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
2. Passive Optical Network Based Mobile Backhaul Enabling Ultra-Low Latency for Communications Among Base Stations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passive Optical Network Based Mobile Backhaul Enabling Ultra-Low Latency for Communications Among Base Stations
2017 (English)In: Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, ISSN 1943-0620, E-ISSN 1943-0639, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 855-863Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low latency is of key importance for mobile networks to support emerging time-critical applications, such as road traffic safety and efficiency. Meanwhile, a passive optical network (PON) is widely recognized as a promising solution for mobile backhaul networks thanks to its high capacity and low energy consumption. In the conventional PON-based mobile backhaul network, where base stations (BSs) are co-located with optical network units, the traffic between the neighboring BSs that are mainly caused by user mobility has to be first sent to the optical line terminal and even further, e.g., edge nodes of mobile core networks, resulting in high latency, although the adjacent BSs are geographically located close to each other. In this paper, a novel PON-based architecture is proposed for mobile backhaul to enhance the connectivity between neighboring BSs. Meanwhile, a tailored medium access control protocol and dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm are introduced to support fast inter-BS communications. The results reveal that a low latency (less than 1 ms packet delay) for communications among any adjacent BSs can be achieved in the proposed PON-based mobile backhaul network, demonstrating great potential to support future time-critical applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Optical Society of America, 2017
Keywords
Inter-base station communications, Low latency, Mobile backhaul, Passive optical network, User mobility
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-217207 (URN)10.1364/JOCN.9.000855 (DOI)000413066100006 ()2-s2.0-85032193893 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20171103

Available from: 2017-11-03 Created: 2017-11-03 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
3. Service Migration in Fog Computing Enabled Cellular Networks to Support Real-Time Vehicular Communications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Service Migration in Fog Computing Enabled Cellular Networks to Support Real-Time Vehicular Communications
Show others...
2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 13704-13714Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Driven by the increasing number of connected vehicles and related services, powerful communication and computation capabilities are needed for vehicular communications, especially for real-time and safety-related applications. A cellular network consists of radio access technologies, including the current long-term evolution (LTE), the LTE advanced, and the forthcoming 5th generation mobile communication systems. It covers large areas and has the ability to provide high data rate and low latency communication services to mobile users. It is considered the most promising access technology to support real-time vehicular communications. Meanwhile, fog is an emerging architecture for computing, storage, and networking, in which fog nodes can be deployed at base stations to deliver cloud services close to vehicular users. In fog computing-enabled cellular networks, mobility is one of the most critical challenges for vehicular communications to maintain the service continuity and to satisfy the stringent service requirements, especially when the computing and storage resources are limited at the fog nodes. Service migration, relocating services from one fog server to another in a dynamic manner, has been proposed as an effective solution to the mobility problem. To support service migration, both computation and communication techniques need to be considered. Given the importance of protocol design to support the mobility of the vehicles and maintain high network performance, in this paper, we investigate the service migration in the fog computing-enabled cellular networks. We propose a quality-of-service aware scheme based on the existing handover procedures to support the real-time vehicular services. A case study based on a realistic vehicle mobility pattern for Luxembourg scenario is carried out, where the proposed scheme, as well as the benchmarks, are compared by analyzing latency and reliability as well as migration cost.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
Keywords
Connected vehicles, fog computing, service migration
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-245959 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2893571 (DOI)000458796400035 ()2-s2.0-85061733224 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190315

Available from: 2019-03-15 Created: 2019-03-15 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
4. Resource Management in Fog-Enhanced Radio Access Network to Support Real-Time Vehicular Services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource Management in Fog-Enhanced Radio Access Network to Support Real-Time Vehicular Services
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 1st International Conference on Fog and Edge Computing, ICFEC 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 68-74, article id 8014361Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

With advances in the information and communication technology (ICT), connected vehicles are one of the key enablers to unleash intelligent transportation systems (ITS). On the other hand, the envisioned massive number of connected vehicles raises the need for powerful communication and computation capabilities. As an emerging technique, fog computing is expected to be integrated with existing communication infrastructures, giving rise to a concept of fog-enhanced radio access networks (FeRANs). Such architecture brings computation capabilities closer to vehicular users, thereby reducing communication latency to access services, while making users capable of sharing local environment information for advanced vehicular services. In the FeRANs service migration, where the service is migrated from a source fog node to a target fog node following the vehicle's moving trace, it is necessary for users to access service as close as possible in order to maintain the service continuity and satisfy stringent latency requirements of real-time services. Fog servers, however, need to have sufficient computational resources available to support such migration. Indeed, a fog node typically has limited resources and hence can easily become overloaded when a large number of user requests arrive, e.g., during peak traffic, resulting in degraded performance. This paper addresses resource management in FeRANs with a focus on management strategies at each individual fog node to improve quality of service (QoS), particularly for real-time vehicular services. To this end, the paper proposes two resource management schemes, namely fog resource reservation and fog resource reallocation. In both schemes, real-time vehicular services are prioritized over other services so that their respective vehicular users can access the services with only one hop. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes can effectively improve one-hop access probability for real-time vehicular services implying low delay performance, even when the fog resource is under heavy load.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Keywords
connected vehicle, Fog computing, real-time service, resource management
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-218549 (URN)10.1109/ICFEC.2017.17 (DOI)000426944700008 ()2-s2.0-85030309454 (Scopus ID)9781509030477 (ISBN)
Conference
1st IEEE International Conference on Fog and Edge Computing, ICFEC 2017, Madrid, Spain, 14 May 2017
Note

QC 20171130

Available from: 2017-11-30 Created: 2017-11-30 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
5. Online Resource Management in Fog-enhanced Cellular Networks for Real-Time Vehicular Services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Online Resource Management in Fog-enhanced Cellular Networks for Real-Time Vehicular Services
Show others...
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fog computing is expected to be integrated with existing communication infrastructures, giving rise to the concept of fog-enhanced cellular networks (FeCNs) to support real-time services. In such FeCNs, service migration is necessary to maintain the service continuity and satisfy stringent latency requirements of real-time vehicular services, where the service is migrated from a source fog node to a target fog node following the vehicle's moving trace. Fog servers, however, need to have sufficient computational resources available to support such a migration. Also, provisioning resource for the migrated real-time services needs to be completed as soon as possible to minimize the service interruption. This paper proposes a distributed online resource management (ORM) scheme, in which resources for real-time vehicular services are provisioned with high priority. Once resources are scarce in one fog node, services with low priority can be migrated to neighboring fog nodes and their resources can be released in a distributed fashion. We propose two algorithms tailored to reduce the negative effects on the affected services. As a case study, the Luxembourg traffic volume model has been considered to verify the performance of the proposed scheme. Simulation results show that the performance of the proposed scheme is dependent on the backhaul capacity. Compared with other schemes, the one-hop access probability for real-time vehicular services implying low delay performance can be effectively improved, while the performance of other services can also be well maintained by providing sufficient backhaul capacity.

National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256502 (URN)
Note

QC 20190903

Available from: 2019-08-26 Created: 2019-08-26 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
6. Dynamic bandwidth slicing for service migration in passive optical network based mobile backhaul
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic bandwidth slicing for service migration in passive optical network based mobile backhaul
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256510 (URN)
Conference
IEEE/OSA Asia Communication and Photonics Conference
Note

QC 20190827

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
7. Delay-aware bandwidth slicing for service migration in mobile backhaul networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Delay-aware bandwidth slicing for service migration in mobile backhaul networks
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, ISSN 1943-0620, E-ISSN 1943-0639, Vol. 11, no 4, p. B1-B9, article id 8697074Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fog computing is expected to be integrated with communication infrastructure, giving rise to the concept of fog-enhanced radio access networks (FeRANs) to support various mission-critical applications. Such architecture brings computation capabilities closer to end users, thereby reducing the communication latency to access services. In the context of FeRAN, service migration is needed to tackle limited resources in a single fog node and to provide continuous service for mobile end users. To support service migration, high capacity and low latency are required in mobile backhaul networks. Passive optical networks can be a promising solution for such mobile back-haul, in which bandwidth is shared by both migration traffic and that which is not associated with service migration. In this paper, we propose a bandwidth slicing mechanism, in which the bandwidth can be provisioned to the migration traffic and non-migration traffic dynamically and effectively to meet their different delay requirements. Simulation results verify that the proposed delay-aware bandwidth slicing scheme can handle the migration traffic properly, i.e., sending it within a required time threshold, while limiting the impact of the migration traffic on the latency and jitter of the non-migration traffic, particularly that with high priority.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2019
Keywords
Bandwidth slicing, Fog computing, Mobile backhaul, Service migration, Bandwidth, Fog, Passive networks, Passive optical networks, Radio access networks, Communication infrastructure, Communication latency, Continuous services, Mission critical applications, Mobile backhaul networks, Mobile backhauls, Support services
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-255958 (URN)10.1364/JOCN.11.0000B1 (DOI)2-s2.0-85064096164 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190815

Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(2511 kB)41 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 2511 kBChecksum SHA-512
36e69c5bebdbd28dfe850490f22b45a3cd0401c7d4ae17cc9c8bf52b71774e7eac660d303f0bd2d2fa3e33ebce6150f0c0d557fae1fd6ebc6c8668c602659f88
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

By organisation
School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS)
Communication Systems

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 41 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 282 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf