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Cellular-Internet-of-Things Enablers:: A Techno-Economic Study of Wide Area Networks Connectivity and Platform Solutions
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). (Techno Economic)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5164-3597
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Internet of Things (IoT) services are gradually attaining the expected service growth rate estimated by market actors. New connectivity paradigms, like the low-power wide-area network (LPWAN), have emerged to address the immediate challenges of IoT connectivity service. In addition, a plethora of new connectivity and application platforms have been developed to support IoT services. Until now, the majority of IoT services have been small scale deployments or trials. The overall cost-effectiveness and scalability aspects of IoT service provisioning are still not well understood. Hence, the growth of IoT services requires attention from a multidisciplinary perspective to address the cost-efficient scalability of IoT communication and service platforms.The technical part of this thesis focuses on the impact of multiplicity on the physical random access channel (PRACH) performance. We investigate the performance limitations of the initial access resource allocation, considering the multiplicity effect on physical layer signature detection to ensure uniform accessibility of devices. The performance evaluation reveals that MAC-protocol designed for PRACH needs to consider the realistic impact of multiplicity on signature detection. Then, we propose an efficient algorithm to detect multiplicity with a higher confidence factor. We also investigate the trade-off of random-access collision and resource allocation utilisation to meet the IoT resource utilisation requirements. We propose a pool-based resource allocation procedure that uses supervised learning to optimise the performance of early data transmission (EDT). Our analysis suggests that with this approach, EDT can handle delay constraint IoT services efficiently.The economic part of the thesis addresses the cost-structure and scalability aspects of both connectivity and platform solutions. The overall research question is: "What factors are driving the costs of IoT connectivity and platform services and why?" We have developed a framework for cost structure analysis of IoT services. We present cost structure breakdown analysis for both IoT connectivity and IoT platform services. The evaluation results discuss conditions when a platform service provider should choose a platform as a service (PaaS), and when on-premises platform deployment is viable.The technical study contributes to shaping the assessment metrics of the random-access algorithm selection. This study proposes solutions to support heterogeneous IoT solutions in cellular-IoT systems. Furthermore, the study demonstrates the potential of supervised learning to optimise resource allocation. The proposed algorithm assures service scalability in terms of user density for massive-IoT, and delay constraint IoT use cases.The economic study is helpful for telecom managers and IoT service providers to understand the cost breakdown of IoT connectivity and platform solutions under a different scenario. The cost driver of different IoT communication technologies like LPWAN, LPLAN, and C-IoT can be estimated at a high level. The framework provides a comparison base which is helpful for the actors in the IoT domain to analyse and compare different service provisioning options.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2019. , p. 140
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:64
Keywords [en]
IoT, LPWAN, 5G, PRACH Contention Resolution, Multiplicity detection, Resource Allocation, Cost Structure.
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Telecommunication; Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256522ISBN: 978-91-7873-276-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-256522DiVA, id: diva2:1346219
Public defence
2019-09-27, Sal-C, Electrum 229, SE-164 40 Kista, Sweden, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190905

Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Collision Multiplicity Detection: Challenges, Solutions, and Impacts on Cellular Random Access
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Collision Multiplicity Detection: Challenges, Solutions, and Impacts on Cellular Random Access
2020 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In cellular and cellular-IoT systems, random access has the utmost importance as it is the gatekeeper that assures conflict-free access to radio resources. The main drawback of the legacy protocols lies at the collision resolution procedure as the base station (BS) is blind to the collision multiplicity and collided devices rely on the BSs for contention resolution. While contention resolution over the random access channel (RACH) is mature in the literature, most studies are following optimistic assumptions in which the full collision impact at the receiver is neglected, and a simplified model of partially overlapping packets is considered. This work is devoted to the investigation of a more realistic model of collision in cellular networks with the aim to investigate challenges and potential solutions in preamble detection in collision scenarios. The simulation results show that besides previously well-known challenges in dealing with collisions, the occurrence of collisions significantly increases the probability of false preamble detection.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2020
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256518 (URN)
Conference
IEEE VTC-Spring
Note

Submitted. QC 20190903

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
2. DERA: Augmented random access for cellular networks with dense H2H-MTC mixed traffic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>DERA: Augmented random access for cellular networks with dense H2H-MTC mixed traffic
2017 (English)In: 2016 IEEE Globecom Workshops, GC Wkshps 2016 - Proceedings, 2017, article id 7848874Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In addition to the Mobile Broadband (MBB) services, future cellular networks will need to cope with a range of new "Internet of things" (IoT) services. LTE-Advanced and future generation cellular technologies should support both service sets within one network in order to keep the service costs and deployment expenses low. Massive IoT services require much less bandwidth than the MBB services, but the network need to serve a massive number of devices in each cell. The IoT applications put stringent demands on the service reliability and energy efficiency, and some will require very low delay. The existing random access (RA) procedures of cellular networks are not really designed for large numbers of terminals, which may result in excessive collisions, and hence, link delay and waste of precious battery energy. The present work aims at solving this problem by proposing a novel delay-estimation based random access scheme that improves the resolution mechanism of the conventional RA procedure in order to lower delay and energy consumption. The performance evaluation results show that the proposed scheme can significantly reduce the access delay in densely deployed scenarios.

Keywords
5G, Collision, LTE-A, M2M, Propagation delay, RA contention, RACH
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-208121 (URN)10.1109/GLOCOMW.2016.7848874 (DOI)000401921400076 ()2-s2.0-85015881718 (Scopus ID)9781509024827 (ISBN)
Conference
2016 IEEE Globecom Workshops, GC Wkshps 2016, Washington, United States, 4 December 2016 through 8 December 2016
Note

QC 20170609

Available from: 2017-06-09 Created: 2017-06-09 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
3. Enhanced Random Access:: Initial Access Load Balance in HighlyDense LTE-A Networks for Multiservice (H2H-MTC) Traffic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Random Access:: Initial Access Load Balance in HighlyDense LTE-A Networks for Multiservice (H2H-MTC) Traffic
2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications, IEEE, 2017, p. 1-7, article id 7996622Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Random Access (RA) procedure in existing cellular networks is not capable of functioning properly during high access load conditions. For this purpose, overload control mechanisms are needed. Most proposed mechanisms in the literature offer a tradeoff between access rate and experienced delays. However, when the maximal tolerated delay and the energy spent on retransmissions are tightly bounded, the very high access rate, targeted for 5G systems, cannot be achieved. For these situations, we propose the Delay Estimation based RA (DERA)-scheme that has the potential to meet very stringent reliability requirements, even in high access load conditions. The present work shows that this goal can be achieved only at the cost of limited additional complexity. Furthermore, we also study the optimal switchover point at which the proposed scheme moves from low-load to the high-load phase. The derived tool can also be used along with other proposed RA overload control schemes, e.g.when to invoke access class barring. The performance evaluation results show that the novel DERA scheme can significantly improve the control channels’ resource utilization along with the success rate in dense deployment scenarios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Keywords
Random access, PRACH, 5G, Machine to machine communications, Propagation delay, contention.
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-214960 (URN)10.1109/ICC.2017.7996622 (DOI)000424872101141 ()2-s2.0-85028360554 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-9000-2 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE International Conference on Communications, ICC 2017; Paris; France; 21 May 2017 through 25 May 2017
Projects
H2020 project METIS-II
Funder
Wireless@kthEU, Horizon 2020, H2020-ICT-2014-2
Note

QC 20171002

Available from: 2017-09-26 Created: 2017-09-26 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
4. RACH Dimensioning for Reliable MTC over Cellular Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>RACH Dimensioning for Reliable MTC over Cellular Networks
2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE 85th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, article id 8108187Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed) [Artistic work]
Abstract [en]

Successful implementation of massive machine-type communications (MTC) service over cellular networks is an important enabler of Internet of things. As the existing cellular infrastructure has been designed and optimized for moderate traffic, the introduction of MTC in cellular networks results in several key challenges, among them, temporal starvation of initial access resources is of paramount importance. Here, we propose a new traffic model for cellular networks serving machine-type subscribers. This model is subsequently used to derive closed-form expressions for the access rate performance of the system. This closed-form expression are subsequently used for RACH resources planning in the time and frequency domains. Given a target access rate requirement, numerical analysis indicates how and when the required RACH resources in the code/frequency domain, i.e. number of preambles, can be traded with the occurrence frequency of RACH slots in the time domain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Series
IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, ISSN 1550-2252 ; 2017
Keywords
M2M, MTC, IoT, Massive access, 5G, Cellular networks, مخابرات ماشین به ماشین، نسل پنج، قابلیت اطمینان، شبکه ی سلولی
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-200680 (URN)10.1109/VTCSpring.2017.8108187 (DOI)000426875800007 ()2-s2.0-85040634455 (Scopus ID)9781509059324 (ISBN)
Conference
85th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC Spring 2017, Sydney, Australia, 4 June 2017 through 7 June 2017
Note

QC 20170201

Available from: 2017-01-31 Created: 2017-01-31 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
5. Early Data Transmit in Cellular-IoT: A Supervised Learning Approach to Optimized Resource Pool Allocation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early Data Transmit in Cellular-IoT: A Supervised Learning Approach to Optimized Resource Pool Allocation
Show others...
2020 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

3GPP introduced Early Data Transmit (EDT) protocol in release-15 to address Internet of things (IoT) services signaling cost and connection delay due to RRC connectivity procedure. EDT enables data transmission in MSG3 wherein traditional RACH procedure, a collision is realized at MSG3 reception. Traditional preventive approach (access class barring) may control the device access rate, but that does not always adequate to solve hidden collision due to the receiver’s limitation and devices power control mechanism. The present work aims at solving the problem by allocating extra resources pool for potential collided devices. The allocated resource of the pool is optimized based on an artificial neural network (ANN) based learning algorithm. The performance evaluation result shows that the learning-based resource allocation radically increases the data transmission success rate with EDT.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Dublin, Ireland: IEEE Communications Society, 2020
Keywords
Resource Allocation, EDT, LTE-M, Machine Learning, Random Access, Neural Network.
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256521 (URN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Communications
Note

QC 20190903

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
6. A Comparative Study of IoT-Communication Systems Cost Structure: Initial Findings of Radio Access Networks Cost
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Comparative Study of IoT-Communication Systems Cost Structure: Initial Findings of Radio Access Networks Cost
2018 (English)In: 11th CMI International Conference, 2018: Prospects and Challenges Towards Developing a Digital Economy within the EU, PCTDDE 2018 / [ed] Williams, I, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 49-55, article id 8624853Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This techno-economic study introduces a framework to study the deployment cost of IoT radio access network and to compare the cost and capacity of LPWAN, LPLAN, and Cellular-IoT systems. There are a plethora of Communication technologies available today. Small rollout and pilot projects are visible for most of the IoT connectivity technologies. However, The economic viability of cellular and non-cellular IoT connectivity technologies are not definite. The primary objective of this work is to analyze the cost structure of SigFox, LoRaWAN, NB-IoT, and WiFi-HaLow. In this paper, we study an urban scenario with the consideration of an Greenfield and Brownfield actor to understand the technology selection strategy of communication service prodvider's perspective. One of our findings indicates that the maintenance cost is the key cost driver for IoT radio access networks. We also point out certain bounds where a technology is potentially cost-effective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018
Keywords
Cost structure, LPWAN, Sigfox, Cellular-IoT, LoRaWAN, WiFi-HaLow
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-249925 (URN)10.1109/PCTDDE.2018.8624853 (DOI)000462653400008 ()2-s2.0-85062718952 (Scopus ID)
Conference
11th CMI International Conference on Prospects and Challenges Towards Developing a Digital Economy within the EU, PCTDDE 2018; Aalborg University Copenhagen. A.C. Meyers Vaenge 15Copenhagen; Denmark; 29 November 2018 through 30 November 2018
Note

QC 20190423

Available from: 2019-04-23 Created: 2019-04-23 Last updated: 2019-08-27Bibliographically approved
7. Comparison of LPWAN Technologies: Cost Structure and Scalability
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of LPWAN Technologies: Cost Structure and Scalability
2019 (English)In: Telecommunications Policy, ISSN 0308-5961, E-ISSN 1879-3258Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

— Pilot rollouts of Cellular-IoT (C-IoT) networks just started to take place this year. In the coming years, commercial deployment will take place. However, among the plethora of low power wide area network (LPWAN) technologies, the cost-effectiveness of C-IoT is not certain for IoT service providers, small and greenfield operators.  Today, there is no known public framework for the feasibility analysis of IoT communication technologies.

Hence, this paper first presents a generic framework to assess the viability of cellular and non-cellular LPWAN technologies. Then, we applied the framework in eight deployment scenarios to analyze the prospect of LPWAN technologies like Sigfox, LoRaWAN, NB-IoT, LTE-M, and EC-GSM. We consider the inter-technology interference impact on LoRaWAN and Sigfox scalability. Our results validate that large rollout with a single technology is not cost-efficient. Also, our analysis suggests the viability of an IoT communication Technology may not be linear to cost efficiency.

Keywords
Cost structure, LPWAN, Ultra Narrow Band, Cellular-IoT, LoRaWAN, NB-IoT
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Telecommunication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256520 (URN)
Note

QC 20190903

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved
8. Techno-Economic Framework for IoT Service Platform:: A Cost-Structure Aspects of IoT Service Provisioning
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Techno-Economic Framework for IoT Service Platform:: A Cost-Structure Aspects of IoT Service Provisioning
(English)In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

A plethora of Internet of Things (IoT) platforms are available in the market today. Most of the IoT platforms are used mainly for service prototyping. Cost-efficient service scalability on any platform is still an unresolved concern that, so far, has been addressed qualitatively. A quantitative method for IoT platform economics is missing in the literature. In this paper, we propose a generic framework to address this gap. Our proposed framework covers the dimensioning of the platform's software and hardware to envisage the design, deployment, and operation cost of platform services. Then, we use the framework to perform a quantitative study of platform rollout in three platform business contexts. Our analysis shows the applicability of different deployment and platform integration choices. Our results suggest that storage and energy are the main cost drivers for platforms' hardware scalability, where the main cost driver is the intensity of the sensors' message transmission rate. Additionally, our use-case based study suggests that platform as a service (PaaS) is only beneficial for actors who have limited scale or niche market need.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Communications Society
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-256515 (URN)
Note

The Journal is under 2nd review. QC 20190903

Available from: 2019-08-27 Created: 2019-08-27 Last updated: 2019-09-03Bibliographically approved

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  • apa
  • harvard1
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