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Zero-insertion-loss optical shutter based on electrowetting-on-dielectric actuation of opaque ionic liquid microdroplets
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3549-0228
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Micro and Nanosystems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0080-0708
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum and Biophotonics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2136-4914
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2019 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 115, no 7, article id 073502Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article reports a broad-band optical shutter based on microdroplet actuation with zero optical insertion loss in the open state. These features are achieved by electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) actuation of opaque ionic liquid microdroplets. The negligible vapor pressure of ionic liquids allows the device to robustly operate in open air, unlike previously proposed EWOD-based systems in which the light crosses several attenuating and reflective layers, preventing broad-band operation and creating insertion losses > 14%. The presented device provides an attenuation of 78dB in the closed state and a transmission of >99.99999% in the open state and can operate in the visible and mid-infrared wavelength range. Moreover, the switch can sustain larger incoming laser powers (5 mW continuous exposure or up to 3h of continuous exposure at similar to 100mW) compared to the values reported for other state-of-the-art EWOD-based shutters. Additionally, the proposed device is compact, operates with low voltage (<25V peak voltage), and features zero static power consumption.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER INST PHYSICS , 2019. Vol. 115, no 7, article id 073502
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-257810DOI: 10.1063/1.5108936ISI: 000481469900019Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85070688345OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-257810DiVA, id: diva2:1350799
Note

QC 20190912

Available from: 2019-09-12 Created: 2019-09-12 Last updated: 2020-01-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Integrated microsystems for continuous glucose monitoring, interstitial fluid sampling and digital microfluidics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated microsystems for continuous glucose monitoring, interstitial fluid sampling and digital microfluidics
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Interdisciplinary research between medicine and microsystem engineering creates new possibilities to improve the quality of life of patients or to further enhance the performance of already existing devices. In particular, microsystems show great potential for the realization of biosensors and sampling devices to monitor bioanalytes with minimal patient discomfort. Microneedles offer a minimally invasive and painless solution to penetrate the epidermis and provide access to dermal interstitial fluid (ISF), to monitor various substances without the need for more invasive and painful extraction of blood. Diabetes, for example, requires continuous monitoring of the glucose levels in the body (CGM) to avoid complications. Although glucose is traditionally measured in finger-prick blood, CGM, which is performed in ISF, has been proven to be beneficial in the management of the disease. However, current commercial solutions are still relatively large and invasive. In this work, an electrochemical glucose sensor 50 times smaller than competing commercial devices was combined with a hollow silicon microneedle and shown to be able to measure glucose levels in the dermis in vivo. A scalable manufacturing method for the assembly of the two separately fabricated components and their electrical interconnection was also demonstrated. At the same time, a single data point may be sufficient in other situations, such as when only the presence of a certain biomarker or drug needs to be assessed. Although continuous monitoring is not required in these cases, the patient would still benefit by avoiding blood extraction. However, there are no simple devices currently available to reliably sample and store ISF. A painless microneedle-based sampling device designed to extract 1 μL of ISF from the dermis was realized. The sampled liquid is metered and stored in a paper matrix embedded in a microfluidic chip. The sample could then be analyzed using state-of-the-art tools, such as mass spectrometry.On the other hand, device miniaturization also creates issues for sensor performance. In certain types of electrochemical gas sensors, such as nitric oxide sensors used for asthma monitoring, the reduced size results in a shorter device lifetime. These sensors typically operate with a liquid electrolyte, subject to evaporation, and their long-term stability tends to be proportional to the electrode size. To address this issue, a gas diffusion and evaporation controlling platform to be integrated with this type of sensors was proposed. Such a platform opens or seals the sensing compartment on demand, potentially enabling sensor recalibration and evaporation reduction when the sensor is not in use. The device is based on electrowetting-on-dielectric actuation of low-vapor-pressure ionic liquid microdroplets on partially perforated membranes. The platform was then modified to create a zero-insertion loss and broad-band-operation laser shutter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2020. p. 96
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2020:7
Keywords
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), biosensors, biomedical devices, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), glucose sensors, microneedles, interstitial fluid sampling, minimally-invasive technologies, electrochemical sensors, heterogeneous integration, wire bonding, magnetic assembly, electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD), digital microfluidics, ionic liquids, gas sensors, optical switches, laser shutters.
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-266803 (URN)978-91-7873-415-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2020-02-14, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 64, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

QC 20200124

Available from: 2020-01-24 Created: 2020-01-23 Last updated: 2020-01-24Bibliographically approved

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Ribet, FedericoDe Luca, EleonoraOttonello Briano, FloriaSwillo, MarcinRoxhed, NiclasStemme, Göran

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