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Dual-Arm Robotic Manipulation under Uncertainties and Task-Based Redundancy
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotics, Perception and Learning, RPL.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3252-715X
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Robotic manipulators are mostly employed in industrial environments, where their tasks can be prescribed with little to no uncertainty. This is possible in scenarios where the deployment time of robot workcells is not prohibitive, such as in the automotive industry. In other contexts, however, the time cost of setting up a classical robotic automation workcell is often prohibitive. This is the case with cellphone manufacturing, for example, which is currently mostly executed by human workers. Robotic automation is nevertheless desirable in these human-centric environments, as a robot can automate the most tedious parts of an assembly. To deploy robots in these environments, however, requires an ability to deal with uncertainties and to robustly execute any given task. In this thesis, we discuss two topics related to autonomous robotic manipulation. First, we address parametric uncertainties in manipulation tasks, such as the location of contacts during the execution of an assembly. We propose and experimentally evaluate two methods that rely on force and torque measurements to produce estimates of task related uncertainties: a method for dexterous manipulation under uncertainties which relies on a compliant rotational degree of freedom at the robot's gripper grasp point and exploits contact  with an external surface, and a cooperative manipulation system which is able to identify the kinematics of a two degrees of freedom mechanism. Then, we consider redundancies in dual-arm robotic manipulation. Dual-armed robots offer a large degree of redundancy which can be exploited to ensure a more robust task execution. When executing an assembly task, for instance, robots can freely change the location of the assembly in their workspace without affecting the task execution. We discuss methods that explore these types of redundancies in relative motion tasks in the form of asymmetries in their execution. Finally, we approach the converse problem by presenting a system which is able to balance measured forces and torques at its end-effectors by leveraging relative motion between them, while grasping a rigid tray. This is achieved through discrete sliding of the grasp points, which constitutes a novel application of bimanual dexterous manipulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. , p. 40
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:73
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263043ISBN: 978-91-7873-331-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-263043DiVA, id: diva2:1366115
Public defence
2019-11-22, Room F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20191105

Available from: 2019-11-05 Created: 2019-10-28 Last updated: 2019-11-11Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Lyapunov-Based Approach to Exploit Asymmetries in Robotic Dual-Arm Task Resolution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Lyapunov-Based Approach to Exploit Asymmetries in Robotic Dual-Arm Task Resolution
2019 (English)In: 58th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Dual-arm manipulation tasks can be prescribed to a robotic system in terms of desired absolute and relative motion of the robot’s end-effectors. These can represent, e.g., jointly carrying a rigid object or performing an assembly task. When both types of motion are to be executed concurrently, the symmetric distribution of the relative motion between arms prevents task conflicts. Conversely, an asymmetric solution to the relative motion task will result in conflicts with the absolute task. In this work, we address the problem of designing a control law for the absolute motion task together with updating the distribution of the relative task among arms. Through a set of numerical results, we contrast our approach with the classical symmetric distribution of the relative motion task to illustrate the advantages of our method.

National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-259616 (URN)
Conference
58th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
Note

QC 20190930

Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
2. Asymmetric Dual-Arm Task Execution using an Extended Relative Jacobian
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Asymmetric Dual-Arm Task Execution using an Extended Relative Jacobian
2019 (English)In: The International Symposium on Robotics Research, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Coordinated dual-arm manipulation tasks can be broadly characterized as possessing absolute and relative motion components. Relative motion tasks, in particular, are inherently redundant in the way they can be distributed between end-effectors. In this work, we analyse cooperative manipulation in terms of the asymmetric resolution of relative motion tasks. We discuss how existing approaches enable the asymmetric execution of a relative motion task, and show how an asymmetric relative motion space can be defined. We leverage this result to propose an extended relative Jacobian to model the cooperative system, which allows a user to set a concrete degree of asymmetry in the task execution. This is achieved without the need for prescribing an absolute motion target. Instead, the absolute motion remains available as a functional redundancy to the system. We illustrate the properties of our proposed Jacobian through numerical simulations of a novel differential Inverse Kinematics algorithm.

Keywords
Kinematics, Robotics, Dual-Arm manipulation, manipulation
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-259615 (URN)
Conference
The International Symposium on Robotics Research
Note

QC 20190930

Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
3. Cooperative Manipulation and Identification of a 2-DOF Articulated Object by a Dual-Arm Robot
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooperative Manipulation and Identification of a 2-DOF Articulated Object by a Dual-Arm Robot
2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION (ICRA) / [ed] IEEE, 2018, p. 5445-5451Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work, we address the dual-arm manipula-tion of a two degrees-of-freedom articulated object that consistsof two rigid links. This can include a linkage constrainedalong two motion directions, or two objects in contact, wherethe contact imposes motion constraints. We formulate theproblem as a cooperative task, which allows the employment ofcoordinated task space frameworks, thus enabling redundancyexploitation by adjusting how the task is shared by the robotarms. In addition, we propose a method that can estimate thejoint location and the direction of the degrees-of-freedom, basedon the contact forces and the motion constraints imposed bythe object. Experimental results demonstrate the performanceof the system in its ability to estimate the two degrees of freedomindependently or simultaneously.

Keywords
Robotics, Dual-Arm, Manipulation, Estimation, Adaptive, Filtering
National Category
Robotics
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226562 (URN)000446394504016 ()2-s2.0-85063142273 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-3081-5 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2018
Projects
SARAFun
Note

QC 20180423

Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
4. Dexterous manipulation by means of compliant grasps and external contacts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dexterous manipulation by means of compliant grasps and external contacts
2017 (English)In: 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017, IEEE, 2017, p. 1913-1920, article id 8206010Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We propose a method that allows for dexterousmanipulation of an object by exploiting contact with an externalsurface. The technique requires a compliant grasp, enablingthe motion of the object in the robot hand while allowingfor significant contact forces to be present on the externalsurface. We show that under this type of grasp it is possibleto estimate and control the pose of the object with respect tothe surface, leveraging the trade-off between force control andmanipulative dexterity. The method is independent of the objectgeometry, relying only on the assumptions of type of grasp andthe existence of a contact with a known surface. Furthermore,by adapting the estimated grasp compliance, the method canhandle unmodelled effects. The approach is demonstrated andevaluated with experiments on object pose regulation andpivoting against a rigid surface, where a mechanical springprovides the required compliance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Series
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, ISSN 2153-0858
Keywords
Dexterous manipulation, grasping, dual-arm, bimanual, estimation, contact, kalman filter, adaptive
National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-215234 (URN)10.1109/IROS.2017.8206010 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041951703 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-2681-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017, Vancouver, Canada, 24 September 2017 through 28 September 2017
Projects
SARAFun
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 8012
Note

QC 20171023

Available from: 2017-10-05 Created: 2017-10-05 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
5. Discrete Bimanual Manipulation for Wrench Balancing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discrete Bimanual Manipulation for Wrench Balancing
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Dual-arm robots can overcome grasping force and payload limitations of a single arm by jointly grasping an object.However, if the distribution of mass of the grasped object is not even, each arm will experience different wrenches that can exceed its payload limits.In this work, we consider the problem of balancing the wrenches experienced by  a dual-arm robot grasping a rigid tray.The distribution of wrenches among the robot arms changes due to objects being placed on the tray.We present an approach to reduce the wrench imbalance among arms through discrete bimanual manipulation.Our approach is based on sequential sliding motions of the grasp points on the surface of the object, to attain a more balanced configuration.%This is achieved in a discrete manner, one arm at a time, to minimize the potential for undesirable object motion during execution.We validate our modeling approach and system design through a set of robot experiments.

National Category
Robotics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263041 (URN)
Note

Under review for ICRA 2020. QC 20191029

Available from: 2019-10-28 Created: 2019-10-28 Last updated: 2019-10-29Bibliographically approved

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