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Dual-Arm Robotic Manipulation under Uncertainties and Task-Based Redundancy
KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Robotik, perception och lärande, RPL.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-3252-715X
2019 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Robotic manipulators are mostly employed in industrial environments, where their tasks can be prescribed with little to no uncertainty. This is possible in scenarios where the deployment time of robot workcells is not prohibitive, such as in the automotive industry. In other contexts, however, the time cost of setting up a classical robotic automation workcell is often prohibitive. This is the case with cellphone manufacturing, for example, which is currently mostly executed by human workers. Robotic automation is nevertheless desirable in these human-centric environments, as a robot can automate the most tedious parts of an assembly. To deploy robots in these environments, however, requires an ability to deal with uncertainties and to robustly execute any given task. In this thesis, we discuss two topics related to autonomous robotic manipulation. First, we address parametric uncertainties in manipulation tasks, such as the location of contacts during the execution of an assembly. We propose and experimentally evaluate two methods that rely on force and torque measurements to produce estimates of task related uncertainties: a method for dexterous manipulation under uncertainties which relies on a compliant rotational degree of freedom at the robot's gripper grasp point and exploits contact  with an external surface, and a cooperative manipulation system which is able to identify the kinematics of a two degrees of freedom mechanism. Then, we consider redundancies in dual-arm robotic manipulation. Dual-armed robots offer a large degree of redundancy which can be exploited to ensure a more robust task execution. When executing an assembly task, for instance, robots can freely change the location of the assembly in their workspace without affecting the task execution. We discuss methods that explore these types of redundancies in relative motion tasks in the form of asymmetries in their execution. Finally, we approach the converse problem by presenting a system which is able to balance measured forces and torques at its end-effectors by leveraging relative motion between them, while grasping a rigid tray. This is achieved through discrete sliding of the grasp points, which constitutes a novel application of bimanual dexterous manipulation.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. , s. 40
Serie
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:73
Nationell ämneskategori
Robotteknik och automation
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263043ISBN: 978-91-7873-331-6 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-263043DiVA, id: diva2:1366115
Disputation
2019-11-22, Room F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 14:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

QC 20191105

Tillgänglig från: 2019-11-05 Skapad: 2019-10-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-18Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. A Lyapunov-Based Approach to Exploit Asymmetries in Robotic Dual-Arm Task Resolution
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Lyapunov-Based Approach to Exploit Asymmetries in Robotic Dual-Arm Task Resolution
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: 58th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), 2019Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Dual-arm manipulation tasks can be prescribed to a robotic system in terms of desired absolute and relative motion of the robot’s end-effectors. These can represent, e.g., jointly carrying a rigid object or performing an assembly task. When both types of motion are to be executed concurrently, the symmetric distribution of the relative motion between arms prevents task conflicts. Conversely, an asymmetric solution to the relative motion task will result in conflicts with the absolute task. In this work, we address the problem of designing a control law for the absolute motion task together with updating the distribution of the relative task among arms. Through a set of numerical results, we contrast our approach with the classical symmetric distribution of the relative motion task to illustrate the advantages of our method.

Nationell ämneskategori
Robotteknik och automation
Forskningsämne
Elektro- och systemteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-259616 (URN)
Konferens
58th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control
Anmärkning

QC 20190930

Tillgänglig från: 2019-09-19 Skapad: 2019-09-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-28Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Asymmetric Dual-Arm Task Execution using an Extended Relative Jacobian
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Asymmetric Dual-Arm Task Execution using an Extended Relative Jacobian
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: The International Symposium on Robotics Research, 2019Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Coordinated dual-arm manipulation tasks can be broadly characterized as possessing absolute and relative motion components. Relative motion tasks, in particular, are inherently redundant in the way they can be distributed between end-effectors. In this work, we analyse cooperative manipulation in terms of the asymmetric resolution of relative motion tasks. We discuss how existing approaches enable the asymmetric execution of a relative motion task, and show how an asymmetric relative motion space can be defined. We leverage this result to propose an extended relative Jacobian to model the cooperative system, which allows a user to set a concrete degree of asymmetry in the task execution. This is achieved without the need for prescribing an absolute motion target. Instead, the absolute motion remains available as a functional redundancy to the system. We illustrate the properties of our proposed Jacobian through numerical simulations of a novel differential Inverse Kinematics algorithm.

Nyckelord
Kinematics, Robotics, Dual-Arm manipulation, manipulation
Nationell ämneskategori
Robotteknik och automation
Forskningsämne
Datalogi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-259615 (URN)
Konferens
The International Symposium on Robotics Research
Anmärkning

QC 20190930

Tillgänglig från: 2019-09-19 Skapad: 2019-09-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-28Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Cooperative Manipulation and Identification of a 2-DOF Articulated Object by a Dual-Arm Robot
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Cooperative Manipulation and Identification of a 2-DOF Articulated Object by a Dual-Arm Robot
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2018 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ROBOTICS AND AUTOMATION (ICRA) / [ed] IEEE, 2018, s. 5445-5451Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

In this work, we address the dual-arm manipula-tion of a two degrees-of-freedom articulated object that consistsof two rigid links. This can include a linkage constrainedalong two motion directions, or two objects in contact, wherethe contact imposes motion constraints. We formulate theproblem as a cooperative task, which allows the employment ofcoordinated task space frameworks, thus enabling redundancyexploitation by adjusting how the task is shared by the robotarms. In addition, we propose a method that can estimate thejoint location and the direction of the degrees-of-freedom, basedon the contact forces and the motion constraints imposed bythe object. Experimental results demonstrate the performanceof the system in its ability to estimate the two degrees of freedomindependently or simultaneously.

Nyckelord
Robotics, Dual-Arm, Manipulation, Estimation, Adaptive, Filtering
Nationell ämneskategori
Robotteknik och automation
Forskningsämne
Datalogi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-226562 (URN)000446394504016 ()2-s2.0-85063142273 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-3081-5 (ISBN)
Konferens
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2018
Projekt
SARAFun
Anmärkning

QC 20180423

Tillgänglig från: 2018-04-20 Skapad: 2018-04-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-28Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Dexterous manipulation by means of compliant grasps and external contacts
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Dexterous manipulation by means of compliant grasps and external contacts
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017, IEEE, 2017, s. 1913-1920, artikel-id 8206010Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

We propose a method that allows for dexterousmanipulation of an object by exploiting contact with an externalsurface. The technique requires a compliant grasp, enablingthe motion of the object in the robot hand while allowingfor significant contact forces to be present on the externalsurface. We show that under this type of grasp it is possibleto estimate and control the pose of the object with respect tothe surface, leveraging the trade-off between force control andmanipulative dexterity. The method is independent of the objectgeometry, relying only on the assumptions of type of grasp andthe existence of a contact with a known surface. Furthermore,by adapting the estimated grasp compliance, the method canhandle unmodelled effects. The approach is demonstrated andevaluated with experiments on object pose regulation andpivoting against a rigid surface, where a mechanical springprovides the required compliance.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE, 2017
Serie
IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, ISSN 2153-0858
Nyckelord
Dexterous manipulation, grasping, dual-arm, bimanual, estimation, contact, kalman filter, adaptive
Nationell ämneskategori
Robotteknik och automation
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-215234 (URN)10.1109/IROS.2017.8206010 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041951703 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-2681-8 (ISBN)
Konferens
2017 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, IROS 2017, Vancouver, Canada, 24 September 2017 through 28 September 2017
Projekt
SARAFun
Forskningsfinansiär
EU, Horisont 2020, 8012
Anmärkning

QC 20171023

Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-05 Skapad: 2017-10-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-28Bibliografiskt granskad
5. Discrete Bimanual Manipulation for Wrench Balancing
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Discrete Bimanual Manipulation for Wrench Balancing
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Dual-arm robots can overcome grasping force and payload limitations of a single arm by jointly grasping an object.However, if the distribution of mass of the grasped object is not even, each arm will experience different wrenches that can exceed its payload limits.In this work, we consider the problem of balancing the wrenches experienced by  a dual-arm robot grasping a rigid tray.The distribution of wrenches among the robot arms changes due to objects being placed on the tray.We present an approach to reduce the wrench imbalance among arms through discrete bimanual manipulation.Our approach is based on sequential sliding motions of the grasp points on the surface of the object, to attain a more balanced configuration.%This is achieved in a discrete manner, one arm at a time, to minimize the potential for undesirable object motion during execution.We validate our modeling approach and system design through a set of robot experiments.

Nationell ämneskategori
Robotteknik och automation
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-263041 (URN)
Anmärkning

Under review for ICRA 2020. QC 20191029

Tillgänglig från: 2019-10-28 Skapad: 2019-10-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-29Bibliografiskt granskad

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