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Carrier transport through a dry-etched InP-based two-dimensional photonic crystal
KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och tillämpad fysik, MAP.
KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och tillämpad fysik, MAP.
KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och tillämpad fysik, MAP.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-6459-749X
KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Mikroelektronik och tillämpad fysik, MAP.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-5845-3032
Vise andre og tillknytning
2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 101, nr 12, s. 123101-1-123101-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The electrical conduction across a two-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) fabricated by Ar/Cl-2 chemically assisted ion beam etching in n-doped InP is influenced by the surface potential of the hole sidewalls, modified by dry etching. Carrier transport across photonic crystal fields with different lattice parameters is investigated. For a given lattice period the PhC resistivity increases with the air fill factor and for a given air fill factor it increases as the lattice period is reduced. The measured current-voltage characteristics show clear ohmic behavior at lower voltages followed by current saturation at higher voltages. This behavior is confirmed by finite element ISE TCAD (TM) simulations. The observed current saturation is attributed to electric-field-induced saturation of the electron drift velocity. From the measured and simulated conductance for the different PhC fields we show that it is possible to determine the sidewall depletion region width and hence the surface potential. We find that at the hole sidewalls the etching induces a Fermi level pinning at about 0.12 eV below the conduction band edge, a value much lower than the bare InP surface potential. The results indicate that for n-InP the volume available for conduction in the etched PhCs approaches the geometrically defined volume as the doping is increased.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2007. Vol. 101, nr 12, s. 123101-1-123101-6
Emneord [en]
WAVE-GUIDES; SIDEWALL RECOMBINATION; SURFACE; DAMAGE; DEPENDENCE; WIRES; MODEL
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8380DOI: 10.1063/1.2747222ISI: 000247625700002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-34547493266OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-8380DiVA, id: diva2:13685
Merknad
QC 20100707Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-05-08 Laget: 2008-05-08 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-14bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. InP-based photonic crystals: Processing, Material properties and Dispersion effects
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>InP-based photonic crystals: Processing, Material properties and Dispersion effects
2008 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Photonic crystals (PhCs) are periodic dielectric structures that exhibit a photonic bandgap, i.e., a range of wavelength for which light propagation is forbidden. The special band structure related dispersion properties offer a realm of novel functionalities and interesting physical phenomena. PhCs have been manufactured using semiconductors and other material technologies. However, InP-based materials are the main choice for active devices at optical communication wavelengths. This thesis focuses on two-dimensional PhCs in the InP/GaInAsP/InP material system and addresses their fabrication technology and their physical properties covering both material issues and light propagation aspects.

Ar/Cl2 chemically assisted ion beam etching was used to etch the photonic crystals. The etching characteristics including feature size dependent etching phenomena were experimentally determined and the underlying etching mechanisms are explained. For the etched PhC holes, aspect ratios around 20 were achieved, with a maximum etch depth of 5 microns for a hole diameter of 300 nm. Optical losses in photonic crystal devices were addressed both in terms of vertical confinement and hole shape and depth. The work also demonstrated that dry etching has a major impact on the properties of the photonic crystal material. The surface Fermi level at the etched hole sidewalls was found to be pinned at 0.12 eV below the conduction band minimum. This is shown to have important consequences on carrier transport. It is also found that, for an InGaAsP quantum well, the surface recombination velocity increases (non-linearly) by more than one order of magnitude as the etch duration is increased, providing evidence for accumulation of sidewall damage. A model based on sputtering theory is developed to qualitatively explain the development of damage.

The physics of dispersive phenomena in PhC structures is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Negative refraction was experimentally demonstrated at optical wavelengths, and applied for light focusing. Fourier optics was used to experimentally explore the issue of coupling to Bloch modes inside the PhC slab and to experimentally determine the curvature of the band structure. Finally, dispersive phenomena were used in coupled-cavity waveguides to achieve a slow light regime with a group index of more than 180 and a group velocity dispersion up to 10^7 times that of a conventional fiber.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Stockholm: KTH, 2008. s. xv, 115
Serie
Trita-ICT/MAP AVH, ISSN 1653-7610 ; 2008:7
Emneord
Photonic crystals, indium phosphide, photonic bandgap, Bloch modes, slow light, dispersion, coupled cavity waveguides, chemically assisted ion beam etching, lag effect, cavities, optical losses, carrier transport, carrier lifetimes, negative refraction, photonic bandstructure
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4734 (URN)978-91-7178-969-3 (ISBN)
Disputas
2008-05-30, N1, Electrum 3, Kista, 10:00
Opponent
Veileder
Merknad
QC 20100712Tilgjengelig fra: 2008-05-08 Laget: 2008-05-08 Sist oppdatert: 2010-07-12bibliografisk kontrollert

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