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Analysis and Optimization of Installed Antenna Performance
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7812-9849
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Analys och optimering av installerad antennprestanda (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

This Ph.D. thesis consists of six papers, which are labeled with roman numer-als. Papers I-III have already been presented in a licentiate thesis published in2017, and this Ph.D. thesis therefore focuses on Papers IV-VI. All six papersare within the scope of microwave and antenna engineering, with applicationsto radar, electronic warfare (EW), radio astronomy or communications.

The common theme for Papers IV-VI is installed antenna performance(IAP). These papers present three methods for solving three problems relatedto IAP, by using information available in the installed far-field data. In thesepapers, we address the main challenges within the scope of IAP, i.e. antennaplacement, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), estimation of installed sys-tem performance (particularly direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation accuracy)and optimization methods to compensate for or minimize installation effects.The presented methods make no simplifying assumptions regarding the anten-nas or their installation, and instead rely on using the installed far-field data,which is obtained through computational electromagnetics. These methodsare therefore valid for generic array antennas. The presented methods areuseful for antenna placement studies, i.e. as input for the decision on antennaplacement on a platform such as an aircraft, ship, satellite or car.

Paper IV considers the problem of antenna placement with respect toEMC. A platform, such as an aircraft, ship, satellite, or car, may have alarge number of radio-frequency (RF) systems installed onboard. Since somesystems transmit a high RF power, while other systems aim to receive weakRF signals, there is a significant risk for unwanted electromagnetic interference (EMI) due to an insufficient isolation between the antennas associated witheach RF system. This paper presents a method for estimating the isolationbetween antennas installed on the same platform, in order to determine therisk for EMI as a function of antenna placement. Finally, a numerical case-study is presented, considering two monopole antennas installed on a smallaircraft under line-of-sight conditions. Results are also presented for otherinstallation configurations, where the antennas are not within line-of-sight.

Paper V considers antenna placement and radome design with respectto DoA estimation accuracy. Firstly, we define the term “installation error”applied to DoA estimation. A method for determining the DoA estimationaccuracy for a specific installation is thereafter presented. The paper endswith a numerical case-study for an array antenna installed behind a single-shell radome in the tail of a realistic full-scale model of a fighter aircraft.

Paper VI presents a method to compensate for radome effects on radi-ation patterns for array antennas. A convex optimization approach is usedto minimize the side-lobe level, while taking the radome effects and mutualcoupling into account. The paper ends with a numerical case-study for amonopulse-array installed behind a single-shell radome.

Abstract [sv]

Denna doktorsavhandling består av sex forskningsartiklar, som här numreras med romerska siffror. Artiklarna I-III har redan presenterats i en licentiatavhandling som publicerades under 2017, och den här avhandlingen behandlar därför primärt Artiklarna IV-VI. Alla sex artiklar är inom mikrovåg- och antennteknik, med tillämpningar inom radar, telekrig (EW), radioastronomi och kommunikation.

Det gemensamma temat för Artiklarna~IV-VI är installerad antennprestanda. Dessa artiklar presenterar tre metoder som har utvecklats för att lösa tre problem relaterade till installerad antennprestanda, genom att använda information som är tillgänglig i installerad fjärrfältsdata. I dessa artiklar bemöter vi de huvudsakliga utmaningarna inom installerad antennprestanda, dvs antennplacering, elektromagnetisk kompatibilitet (EMC) och telekonflikt, estimering av installerad systemprestanda (speciellt vinkelmätningsnoggrannhet), samt metoder för att kompensera för installationseffekter. Dessa metoder är inte baserade på några förenklande antaganden, och kan därför tillämpas för godtyckliga gruppantenner, där fjärrfältsdata bestäms med elektromagnetiska beräkningar (CEM). Metoderna är användbara exempelvis under en förstudiefas för en ny plattform (exempelvis ett flygplan, fartyg, satellit eller bil) för att fatta beslut om antennplaceringar.  

Artikel IV presenterar en metod för att uppskatta risken för telekonflikt för föreslagna antennplaceringar. En plattform har idag typiskt ett stort antal radiofrekvens (RF)-system ombord. Då vissa RF-system sänder en hög effekt, samtidigt som andra RF-system ska ta emot svaga signaler, finns det en risk för elektromagnetisk interferens (EMI), dvs telekonflikt, mellan dessa system. Telekonflikt kan alltså uppstå på grund av en för låg isolation mellan systemens antenner. Denna artikel presenterar en metod för att uppskatta isolationen mellan antennerna ombord som en funktion av deras placering. Flera antennplaceringar undersöks, inklusive monopolantenner installerade på ett litet flygplan, där antennerna har fri sikt till varandra. Resultat presenteras också för antenner som inte har fri sikt till varandra.

Artikel V handlar om antennplacering och radomdesign, med hänsyn till vinkelinmätningsnoggrannhet. Vi definierar först begreppet ``installationsfel'' tillämpat på vinkelestimering. Därefter presenteras en metod för att uppskatta systemets vinkelinmätningsnoggrannhet för en föreslagen installation, genom att använda installerade fjärrfält som indata. Denna artikel presenterar en fallstudie för en liten gruppantenn med en radom, som installeras i aktern på ett modernt stridsflygplan.

Artikel VI presenterar en metod för att kompensera för radomers påverkan på strålningsdiagram hos gruppantenner. En konvex optimeringsmetod används för att minimera sidlobsnivån i en monopuls-gruppantenn, med hänsyn till de fel som radomen orsakar. Denna metod tar även hänsyn till övriga effekter, som till exempel ömsesidig koppling. Artikeln presenterar en  fallstudie för en liten gruppantenn som installerats bakom en enkelskalsradom.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2020. , p. 156
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2020:15
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Signal Processing
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-267562ISBN: 978-91-7873-447-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-267562DiVA, id: diva2:1392934
Public defence
2020-03-09, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Vinnova, ChaseOn iAA
Note

QC 20200214

Available from: 2020-02-14 Created: 2020-02-13 Last updated: 2020-02-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Closed-Form Relation between the Scan Angle and Feed Position for Extended Hemispherical Lenses based on Ray-Tracing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Closed-Form Relation between the Scan Angle and Feed Position for Extended Hemispherical Lenses based on Ray-Tracing
2016 (English)In: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, ISSN 1536-1225, E-ISSN 1548-5757, Vol. 15, p. 1963-1966Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This letter presents a closed-form relation between the scan angle and feed position for extended hemispherical lenses. This relation is derived using ray tracing, and it is valid for both large and small scan angles, in excellent agreement with full-wave simulations. It is demonstrated that the relation is linear in the small-angle limit, and the effective focal length determining the scan angle is presented. It is also demonstrated that the scan angle only depends on the geometrical configuration, and that it is independent of the lens material. To demonstrate the applicability of this scan angle relation to the design of focal plane arrays (FPAs), we demonstrate that it can be used to determine the FPA spacing that results in -3-dB overlap between switched beams. A comparison with full-wave simulations of lenses with varying materials and FPA elements demonstrates a root-mean-square (rms) accuracy of 0.27 degrees for the scan angle estimation, and rms accuracy of 0.26 dB for the -3-dB overlap criterion between the central and adjacent beams. Finally, we present scaling rules, which show that the scan resolution is inversely proportional to the lens diameter, whereas the FPA spacing is independent of the total lens size.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2016
Keywords
Ray-Tracing, Extended Hemispherical Lens, Beam Steering, Focal Plane Array (FPA), antenna theory, lenses
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-197334 (URN)10.1109/LAWP.2016.2545858 (DOI)000391740300006 ()2-s2.0-85008452894 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20170209

Available from: 2016-12-03 Created: 2016-12-03 Last updated: 2020-02-13Bibliographically approved
2. Optimization of Micromachined Millimeter-Wave Planar Silicon Lens Antennas with Concentricand Shifted Matching Regions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of Micromachined Millimeter-Wave Planar Silicon Lens Antennas with Concentricand Shifted Matching Regions
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, ISSN 1937-8718, E-ISSN 1937-8718, Vol. 79, p. 17-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a study of planar silicon lens antennas with up to three stepped-impedance matching regions. The effective permittivity of the matching regions is tailor-made byetching periodic holes in the silicon substrate. The optimal thickness and permittivity of the matchingregions were determined by numerical optimization to obtain the maximum wideband aperture efficiencyand smallest side-lobes. We introduce a new geometry for the matching regions, referred to as shiftedmatching regions. The simulation results indicate that using three shifted matching regions results intwice as large aperture efficiency as compared to using three conventional concentric matching regions.By increasing the number of matching regions from one to three, the band-averaged gain is increasedby 0.3 dB when using concentric matching regions, and by 3.7 dB when using shifted matching regions,which illustrates the advantage of the proposed shifted matching region design.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-197335 (URN)
Note

QC 20161115

Available from: 2016-12-03 Created: 2016-12-03 Last updated: 2020-02-13Bibliographically approved
3. A 500–750 GHz RF MEMS Waveguide Switch
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 500–750 GHz RF MEMS Waveguide Switch
Show others...
2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, ISSN 2156-342X, E-ISSN 2156-3446, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 326-334Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a submillimeter-wave 500-750 GHz micorelectromechanical systems (MEMS) waveguide switch based on a MEMS-reconfigurable surface to block/unblock the wave propagation through the waveguide. In the non-blocking state, the electromagnetic wave can pass freely through the MEMS-reconfigurable surface, while in the blocking state, the electric field lines of the TE10 mode are short-circuited that blocks the wave propagation through a WM-380 (WR-1.5) waveguide. A detailed design parameter study is carried out to determine the best combination of the number of horizontal bars and vertical columns of the MEMS-reconfigurable surface for achieving a low insertion loss in the non-blocking state and a high isolation in the blocking state for the 500-750 GHz band. Two different switch concepts relying either on an ohmic-contact or a capacitive-contact between the contact cantilevers have been implemented. The measurements of the switch prototypes show a superior RF performance of the capacitive-contact switch. The measured isolation of the capacitive-contact switch designed with an 8 μm contact overlap is 19-24 dB and the measured insertion loss in the non-blocking state is 2.5-3 dB from 500 to 750 GHz including a 400 μm long micromachined waveguide section. By measuring reference chips, it is shown that the MEMS-reconfigurable surface contributes only to 0.5-1 dB of the insertion loss, while the rest is attributed to the limited sidewall metal thickness and to the surface roughness of the 400 μm long micromachined waveguide section. Finally, reliability measurements in an uncontrolled laboratory environment on a comb-drive actuator with an actuation voltage of 28 V showed no degradation in the functioning of the actuator over one hundred million cycles. The actuator was also kept in the actuated state for ten days and showed no sign of failure or deterioration.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2017
Keywords
RF MEMS, waveguide switch, micromachined waveguide, submillimeter-wave, rectangular waveguide, terahertz
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-197338 (URN)10.1109/TTHZ.2017.2670259 (DOI)000401094100012 ()2-s2.0-85014814859 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 616846Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , SE13-007
Note

QC 20161214

Available from: 2016-12-03 Created: 2016-12-03 Last updated: 2020-02-13Bibliographically approved
4. An Approximate Method for Calculating the Near-Field Mutual Coupling Between Line-of-Sight Antennas on Vehicles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Approximate Method for Calculating the Near-Field Mutual Coupling Between Line-of-Sight Antennas on Vehicles
2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 4132-4138Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Calculating the mutual coupling between antennas on vehicles using full-wave simulations requires a vast amount of computer resources due to the electrical size of the structures. We therefore propose an alternative and approximate method to determine mutual coupling between antennas on vehicles for the case where there is line-of-sight (LOS) between the antennas. The proposed method is based on approximating the mutual coupling between LOS antennas on vehicles as near-field transmission between antennas in free space. We begin the analysis with a brief review of four methods for calculating the near-field free-space transmission. Of the investigated methods, we demonstrate that a nonsingular form of the near-field transmission integral originally proposed by Yaghjian (1982) is the most suitable for LOS antennas on vehicles. We introduce a modification to this method, in order to only use the antenna far-fields and geometrical separation to determine the mutual coupling. The comparison with full-wave simulations indicates that the proposed method has a good accuracy for LOS antennas. This paper ends with a full-scale mutual coupling calculation for two monopoles on an aircraft under LOS conditions, demonstrating a root mean square (rms) accuracy of 6 dB for frequencies up to 5 GHz, as compared with full-wave simulations.

Keywords
Aircraft antennas, aircraft reliability, electrically large structures, electromagnetic interference, near-fields
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-173969 (URN)10.1109/TAP.2015.2447003 (DOI)000360803400035 ()2-s2.0-84940973948 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20151006

Available from: 2015-10-06 Created: 2015-09-24 Last updated: 2020-02-13Bibliographically approved
5. Determining Direction‐of‐Arrival Accuracy for Installed Antennas by Postprocessing of Far‐Field Data
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determining Direction‐of‐Arrival Accuracy for Installed Antennas by Postprocessing of Far‐Field Data
2019 (English)In: Radio Science, ISSN 0048-6604, E-ISSN 1944-799X, Vol. 54, no 12, p. 1204-1221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Direction‐of‐arrival (DoA) estimation accuracy can be degraded due to installation effects, such as platform reflections, diffraction from metal edges, and reflections and refraction in the radome. To analyze these effects, this paper starts with a definition of the term installation error related to DoA estimation. Thereafter, we present a postprocessing method, which can be used to determine the DoA estimation accuracy for installed antennas. By computing synthetic signals from the installed far‐field data, it is possible to analyze the installation errors described above, in addition to analyzing array model errors. The method formulation is general, thus allowing generic array configurations, installation configurations, and direction‐finding algorithms to be studied. The use of the presented method is demonstrated by a case study of a wideband four‐quadrant array. In this case study, we investigate the installation errors due to a single‐shell radome. Thereafter, the effects of platform reflections are also analyzed, for an antenna placement in the tail of a fighter aircraft. Simulation results are presented for both the monopulse and the MUltiple SIgnal Classification direction‐finding algorithms.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-267555 (URN)10.1029/2019RS006975 (DOI)
Note

QC 20200217

Available from: 2020-02-10 Created: 2020-02-10 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
6. Compensation of radome effects in small airborne monopulse arrays by convex optimization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compensation of radome effects in small airborne monopulse arrays by convex optimization
2018 (English)In: IET Conference Publications, Institution of Engineering and Technology , 2018, no CP741Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The quality of small array antennas in airborne monopulse systems can be significantly reduced by the radome. We therefore present a convex optimization approach to minimize radome effects in monopulse arrays. This is achieved by using active element patterns in the optimization to determine the excitation weights. Simulation results for a BoR array with 48 elements and an extended hemispherical radome are presented. We demonstrate that it is possible to reduce the side-lobe level by 3.5 dB by taking radome effects into account in the optimization. This approach also results in an increased gain, particularly at large scan angles. Furthermore, the presented approach allows the monopulse slope to be indirectly specified as a design parameter. It is shown that the trade-off between the monopulse slope coefficient and the side-lobe level is approximately linear.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2018
Keywords
Airborne ESM, Convex optimization, Monoulse DOA estimation, Phased array antennas, Radomes, Economic and social effects, Active element patterns, Design parameters, DOA estimation, Large scan angle, Optimization approach, Sidelobe levels, Antenna phased arrays
National Category
Signal Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-247468 (URN)2-s2.0-85057296300 (Scopus ID)
Conference
12th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2018, 9 April 2018 through 13 April 2018
Note

QC 20190405

Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2020-02-13Bibliographically approved
7. On millimeter and submillimeter wave focal plane arrays implemented with MEMS waveguide switches
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On millimeter and submillimeter wave focal plane arrays implemented with MEMS waveguide switches
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis presents research towards enabling micromachined millimeter and submillimeter wave focal plane arrays (FPAs). The FPAs operate under the following principle: a switch network consisting of microelectromechanical (MEMS) switches, integrated with micromachined waveguides, is used to feed an array of antenna elements, located in the focal plane of a high-gain quasi-optical system. Hence, it is possible to switch between a set of narrow beams in different directions. Such beam steering systems are needed for future millimeter and submillimeter wave imaging and communication systems. The contributions to future MEMS-switchable FPAs presented here are organized in three papers, as described below.

Paper I presents a criterion on the spacing between adjacent FPA elements which results in -3 dB overlap between the switched beams, for the special case when an extended hemispherical dielectric lens is used as the optical system. A key step towards this criterion is a closed-form relation between the scan angle and the FPA element's position, which results in an expression for the effective focal length of extended hemispherical lenses. A comparison with full-wave simulations demonstrates an excellent agreement with the presented theoretical results. Finally, it is shown that the maximum feasible FPA spacing when using an extended hemispherical lens is about 0.7 wavelengths.

Paper II presents a numerical study of silicon-micromachined planar extended hemispherical lenses, with up to three matching regions used to reduce internal reflections. The effective permittivity of the matching regions is tailor-made by etching periodic holes in the silicon wafer. The optimal thickness and permittivity of the matching regions were determined using TRF optimization, in order to yield the maximum wide-band aperture efficiency and small side-lobes. We introduce a new matching region geometry, referred to as shifted-type matching regions, and it is demonstrated that using three shifted-type matching regions results in twice as large aperture efficiency as compared to using three conventional concentric-type matching regions.

Paper III presents a submillimeter-wave single-pole single-throw (SPST) 500-750 GHz MEMS waveguide switch, based on a MEMS-reconfigurable surface inserted between two waveguide flanges. A detailed design parameter study is carried out to select the best combination of the number of horizontal bars and vertical columns of the MEMS-reconfigurable surface, for achieving a low insertion loss in the transmissive state and a high isolation in the blocking state. A method is presented to model the non-ideal electrical contacts between the vertical cantilevers of the MEMS surface, with an excellent agreement between the simulated and measured isolation. It is shown that the isolation can be improved by replacing an ohmic contact by a new, capacitive contact. The measured isolation of the switch prototype is better than 19 dB and the measured insertion loss is between 2.5 and 3 dB.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling presenterar forskning som syftar till att möjliggöra fokalplans-gruppantenner (FPAs) för våglängder i millimeter och submillimeterområdet. Principen för en sådan FPAs funktion är följande: ett nätverk bestående av mikroelektromekaniska (MEMS) switchar, används för att välja mellan de olika antenn-elementen i en gruppantenn, som placerats i fokalplanet av ett optiskt system. Därmed blir det möjligt att välja från en uppsättning av smala lober i olika riktningar. Sådana lob-styrningssystem behövs för framtida radar- och kommunikationssystem i millimeter och submillimeterområdet. Resultaten är uppdelade i tre vetenskapliga artiklar, som beskrivs nedan.

I den första artikeln (Paper I) presenteras ett villkor för avståndet mellan närliggande FPA-element som resulterar i -3 dB överlappning mellan de switchade loberna, för specialfallet då en förlängd hemisfärisk lins används som optiskt system. Det viktigaste steget mot att hitta detta villkor är att bestämma en analytisk relation mellan avsökningsvinkeln och FPA-elementens position. Detta resulterar i ett uttryck för den effektiva fokallängden för denna typ av lins. En utmärkt överensstämelse har funnits mellan dessa relationer och simuleringar. Slutligen visas det att de största möjliga FPA-avstånden för en förlängd hemisfärisk lins är ungefär 0.7 våglängder, vilket uppnås för linser med låg permittivitet.

I den andra artikeln (Paper II) presenteras en numerisk studie av plana förlängda hemisfäriska linser, som kan produceras från en kiselskiva. Linserna har upp till tre matchningsregioner, som används för att reducera interna reflektioner. Den effektiva permittiviteten av de matchande regionerna skräddarsys genom etsning av periodiska hål i kiselskivan. Den optimala tjockleken och permittiviteten av de matchande regionerna har bestämts med hjälp av TRF-optimering, för att ge maximal bredbandig direktivitet och minimala sidlober. En ny geometri introduceras för matchningsregionerna, som vi kallar matchningsregioner av skiftad typ. Vi visar att användning av tre matchningsregioner av skiftad typ resulterar i en dubbelt så hög apertur-effektivitet, jämfört med att använda tre konventionella matchningsregioner av koncentrisk typ.

I den tredje artikeln (Paper III) presenteras en MEMS-switch för rektangulära vågledare, för frekvensområdet 500-750 GHz. Baserat på en designparameterstudie har den bästa kombinationen av antalet horisontella rader och vertikala kolumner hos den MEMS-konfigurerbara ytan valts ut, för att uppnå låga förluster i det öppna tillståndet och hög isolation i det blockerande tillståndet. I artikeln presenteras en metod för att modellera icke-perfekta elektriska kontakter mellan de fixerade och de rörliga delarna i MEMS-ytan. Denna metod uppvisar en utmärkt överensstämmelse mellan den simulerade och den uppmätta isolationen. Vi visara att isolationen kan förbättras med hjälp av en ny typ av kapacitiv kontakt. Den uppmätta isolationen hos den presenterade switch-prototypen är högre än 19 dB, och den uppmätta förlusten är mellan 2.5 och 3 dB.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. p. 49
Series
TRITA-EE, ISSN 1653-5146
Keywords
Extended Hemispherical Lens, Beam Steering, Focal Plane Array (FPA), Ray-Tracing, RF MEMS, waveguide switch, micromachined waveguide, submillimeter-wave, rectangular waveguide, terahertz, lenses, antenna theory, silicon
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-197339 (URN)978-91-7729-208-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-01-27, Q2, Osquldas väg 10, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , SE13-007
Note

QC 20161206

Available from: 2016-12-06 Created: 2016-12-03 Last updated: 2020-02-13Bibliographically approved

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