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Characterization of graphene-based sensors for forensic applications: Evaluating suitability of CVD graphene-based resistive sensor for detection of amphetamine
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
2019 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Recent improvements in sensor technology and applications can be partly attributed to the advancements in microand nanoscale fabrication processes and discovery of novel materials. The emergence of reliable and inexpensive methods of production of monolayer materials, such as graphene, has revealed the advantageous electronic properties which when utilized in sensory elements can significantly enhance response to the input signal. Hence, graphene-based sensory devices have been widely investigated as the exotic properties of the carbon nanomaterial allow for cost-efficient scalable production of highly sensitive transduction elements. Previous studies have shown successful detection of n-type dopants such as ammonia and low pH solution. As the amine group in amphetamine molecules is known to behave as an electron donor, in this study, graphene conductivity changes in response to exposure to amphetamine salt solutions were investigated.Graphene formed by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) was transferred onto SiO2 substrate with gold electrodes to form a resistive transducer. Observation of large intensity ratio of graphene characteristic 2D and G peaks as well as minimal defect peaks from Raman spectroscopy analysis proved the integrity of the carbon monolayer was maintained. The atomic force microscopy and resistance measurements results showed the storage of these sensory elements in ambient conditions results in adsorption of impurities which considerably influence the electronic properties of graphene. Upon exposure to amphetamine sulfate and amphetamine hydrochloride, conductivity decrease was detected as expected. Signal enhancement by excitation of 470nm light did not show a significant increase in response magnitude. However, the low reliability of sensor response limited further analysis of the chemical sensor signal. Non-selective sensor response to amphetamine can be detected, but improvements in device design are needed to minimize contamination of the graphene surface by ambient impurities and variations in the sensor system.

Abstract [sv]

De senaste förbättringarna i sensorteknik och applikationer kan kopplas till framsteg inom framställningsprocesser berörande mikrooch nanoskala samt upptäckt av nya material. Framväxten av tillförlitliga och billiga produktionsmetoder av monoskiktmaterial, såsom grafen, har avslöjat de fördelaktiga elektroniska egenskaperna som när de används i sensoriska element och förbättrar signalresponsen till inputsignalen. Grafenbaserade sensoriska applicationer har undersökts allteftersom de exotiska egenskaperna hos kolbaserade nanomaterial möjliggör en kostnadseffektiv skalbara produktion av högkänsliga transduktionselement. Tidigare studier har framgångsrikt visat detektion av n-typ substanser såsom ammoniak och låg pH-lösning. Eftersom amingruppen i amfetaminmolekyler är känd för att verka som en elektrondonator, undersöktes i denna studie konduktivitetsändringar i grafen under exponering för amfetaminsaltlösningar.Grafen bildad genom kemisk ångavsättning (CVD) överfördes på Si02-substrat med guldelektroder för att bilda en resistiv omvandlare. Observation av intensitetförhållandet mellan de grafenkarakteristiska 2Doch G-topparna samt minimala defekttoppar från Ramanspektroskopianalysen visade att kolmonolagrets struktur upprätthölls. Resultaten av atomkraftmikroskopi och resistansmätningar visade att lagringen av de sensoriska element i normala omgivningsförhållanden resulterar i adsorption av föroreningar som avsevärt påverkar grafens elektroniska egenskaper. Vid exponering för amfetaminsulfat och amfetaminhydroklorid upptäcktes en förväntad konduktivitetsminskning. Signalförbättring genom excitation av 470nm-ljus visade inte en signifikant ökning av svarstyrkan. Den låga tillförlitligheten hos sensorn begränsade emellertid ytterligare analys av den kemiska sensorsignalen. Sensorns icke-selektiva svar på amfetamin kan detekteras, men förbättringar i enhetens konstruktion behövs för att minimera kontaminering av omgivande föroreningar på grafenytan och variationer i sensorsystemet.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 35
Series
TRITA-EECS-EX ; 2019:789
Keywords [en]
Sensor systems, Chemical sensors, Nanosensors, Drug screening, Nanomaterials
Keywords [sv]
Sensorsystem, Kemiska sensorer, Nanosensorer, Drug screening, Nanomaterial
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-271188OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-271188DiVA, id: diva2:1415924
Examiners
Available from: 2020-03-20 Created: 2020-03-20 Last updated: 2020-03-20Bibliographically approved

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