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Laboratory measurements of airborne emissions from car brakes for clean air
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5669-8888
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Brake systems are used to safely stop vehicles. The brake pads are pressed against the brake disc, transforming the kinetic energy of the vehicle into heat to be dissipated. In this process a tribological contact causing wear takes place at the interface of the pads and disc: particles are generated, a fraction of which is airborne and therefore creates an aerosol. To meet demands on air quality and sustainable transport, significant challenges are to find means to measure particles, and provide solutions able to decrease such source of emissions.

Paper A proposes a test cycle executed in an inertia brake dynamometer during which a measurement of the airborne particles is carried out: the sampling point is close to the source of emissions. The experimental results are then analysed to determine how many particles are generated per test section.

Paper B presents a redesign of an inertial disc brake dynamometer with the aim to have clean air while measuring particles, and isokinetic sampling. A comparison in terms of number and size distributions of the brake emissions with and without control of the cleanness of the intake air is studied.

Paper C is the ranking, from the non-exhaust brake emissions point of view, of five different current brake pair materials using the novel redesigned inertia disc brake dynamometer. Particles are both counted, collect on filters and weighed.

Paper D investigates the evolution of the friction performance in terms of friction coefficient and emissions, over five repetitions of the same test procedure – so considering the running-in effect. The friction performance is discussed as a consequence of the dominating wear mechanisms.

Paper E conducts a study on real driving data that are transformed into a brake dynamometer testing procedure by an energy–temperature approach. The consequent emissions study allows the calculation of brake emission factors.

Paper F presents a comparison of the brake particle emissions measurement when volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (if any), as for exhaust emissions, are thermal treated before being measured.

Paper G illustrates a holistic approach, developed within the REBRAKE EU-financed project, for reducing airborne emissions for car brakes by 50% integrating different perspectives: the tribological testing of the friction pair at different scale levels, the analysis of the relevant wear products and correlated wear mechanisms, the development of specific contact mechanics simulation approaches, and the optimisation of the friction pair materials.

Abstract [sv]

Mekaniska bromsar används för att stoppa fordon på ett säkert sätt. I en skivbroms pressas bromsbeläggen mot bromsskivan och förvandlar fordonets kinetiska energi till värme. I denna process finns en tribologisk kontakt som orsakar slitage i gränssnittet mellan belägg och skiva: partiklar alstras då, av vilka en bråkdel blir luftburna och skapar en aerosol. För att möta krav på luftkvalitet och hållbara transporter är viktiga utmaningar: att utveckla metoder för att mäta luftburna partiklar och att lösningar utvecklas som kan minska utsläppen av luftburna partiklar vid källorna.

Papper A presenterar en testcykel som utförs i en skivbromsdynamometer under vilken en mätning av luftburna partiklarna utförs: provtagningspunkten är nära källan till utsläppen. De experimentella resultaten analyseras för att bestämma antalet luftburna partiklar som genereras per testsektion.

Papper B presenterar en ny design av skivbromsdynamometern (Papper A) med syftet att ha ren bakgrundsluft vid mätning av partiklar och isokinetisk provtagning. En jämförande studie presenteras när det gäller antalet och storleksfördelningen av de luftburna partiklarna med och utan ren bakgrundsluft.

Papper C presenterar en rankning av fem olika skivbromsmaterial i den nya skivbromsdynamometern (Papper B). I jämförelsen utvärderas antalet generade partiklar och partikelmassan genom uppsamling av luftburna partiklar på filter.

Papper D undersöker inkörningseffekter över fem upprepningar av samma testprocedur. Speciellt studeras utvecklingen av friktionsprestanda i termer av friktionskoefficient, ihop med utsläpp i form av luftburna partiklar. Friktionsprestanda diskuteras också som en konsekvens av de dominerande nötningsmekanismerna.

Papper E presenterar en studie av uppmätt kör data som omvandlas till en testprocedur för prov i en bromsdynamometer genom en energitemperaturmetod. Den efterföljande studien gör det möjligt att beräkna emissionsfaktorer för skivbromsar.

Papper F presenterar en jämförelse av mätningen av bromspartiklarnas utsläpp när volatila och organiska föreningar (i förekommande fall), på samma sätt som för avgasutsläpp, termiskt behandlas innan de mäts.

Papper G illustrerar ett holistiskt tillvägagångssätt, utvecklat inom REBRAKE-projektet, ett EU-finansierat projekt, för att minska massan luftburna inandningsbara partiklar från bilbromsar med 50%. Detta genomförs genom att integrera olika perspektiv: tribologiska tester av friktionsparet i olika storleksskalor, analys av nötningsprodukter som korreleras med slitage mekanismer, utveckling av specifika metoder för kontaktmekanisk simulering och optimering av skivbromsens material i den tribologiska kontakten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2020. , p. 52
Series
TRITA-ITM-AVL ; 2020:21
Keywords [en]
Automotive brake, non-exhaust emissions, inertia brake dynamometer, airborne particles, PM10, PN, isokinetic sampling, Rebrake, volatiles, real driving cycle, car brake emission factors, running-in.
Keywords [sv]
Bilbroms, icke-avgasemissioner, skivbromsdynamometer, luftburna partiklar, PM10, PN, isokinetisk provtagning, Rebrake, volatiler, verkliga körcykler, emissionsfaktorer, in-körning.
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272858ISBN: 978-91-7873-530-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-272858DiVA, id: diva2:1427836
Public defence
2020-05-29, https://kth-se.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_eGW21EuVSbqhyxdKBU6PeQ, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2020-05-08 Created: 2020-05-02 Last updated: 2020-05-27Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A proposed dyno bench test cycle to study particle emissions from disc brakes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A proposed dyno bench test cycle to study particle emissions from disc brakes
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In urban areas, the impact of on-road vehicles on particulate matter is well acknowledged. Particulates originating from vehicles come not only from the engine exhaust emissions, but also from wear processes in brakes and between tires and road surface. In the EU, these non-exhaust vehicle emissions equal approximately 50 % of the exhaust emissions of PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 10 μm).To reduce the air pollution, tail pipe emissions are today regulated. Detailed test protocols for engine exhaust verification and certification, using different driving cycles, are available. However, there are no formal test protocols for particulate emissions from disc brakes.Here a test cycle for disc brakes is proposed considering a typical European car usage. It consists of nine different braking blocks, starting from a burning-in and involving town, country road, highway and hill descend conditions.To evaluate the test cycle, a front brake assembly was set-up in a shaft-type inertia dynamometer. Particle emissions were continuously registered using a particle counter, which can measure particulate matter from ultrafine to coarse sizeThe conclusion is that the proposed test cycle can be used to evaluate particulate emissions from disc brakes, and the next step towards a test protocol should be to improve the measurements using a clean environment around the brake assembly and isokinetic sampling.

Keywords
Airborne particulates, disc brake, dyno test
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272849 (URN)
Conference
Eurobrake 2014
Note

QC 20200504

Available from: 2020-04-30 Created: 2020-04-30 Last updated: 2020-05-04Bibliographically approved
2. Towards a test stand for standardized measurements of the brake emissions.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a test stand for standardized measurements of the brake emissions.
2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part D, journal of automobile engineering, ISSN 0954-4070, E-ISSN 2041-2991Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272815 (URN)
Note

QC 20200505

Available from: 2020-04-30 Created: 2020-04-30 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
3. Towards the ranking of airborneparticle emissions from car brakes – a system approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards the ranking of airborneparticle emissions from car brakes – a system approach
2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part D, journal of automobile engineering, ISSN 0954-4070, E-ISSN 2041-2991Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272850 (URN)
Note

QC 20200505

Available from: 2020-04-30 Created: 2020-04-30 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
4. On the running-in of brake pads and discs for dyno bench tests
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the running-in of brake pads and discs for dyno bench tests
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 115, p. 424-431Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Running-in process of low metallic brake pads and cast iron discs are investigated using full scale inertia brake dynamometer designed for particle emission studies. The airborne particles are measured using ELPI+ and collected on filters. The pads and disc contact surfaces are studied using microscopy techniques. It is observed that the particle emissions from the new pads and discs are significantly higher compared with the used ones and indicates importance of proper running-in of the pads and disc for wear particle emission tests. The results also indicate that pads and disc pairs which are able to stabilize friction behavior faster will produce less particle emissions which could influence the strategies of brake material formulations or steps during their production.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2017
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-210263 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2017.06.008 (DOI)000407187900041 ()2-s2.0-85020758752 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 324385
Note

QC 20170630

Available from: 2017-06-30 Created: 2017-06-30 Last updated: 2020-05-02Bibliographically approved
5. A proposed driving cycle for brake emissions investigation for test stand
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A proposed driving cycle for brake emissions investigation for test stand
2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part D, journal of automobile engineering, ISSN 0954-4070, E-ISSN 2041-2991, Vol. 234, no 1, p. 122-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Particulate matter emission factors from vehicle brakes are difficult to assess directly from the field. Moreover, there is a lack of a standardized cycle and test stand for evaluating brake emissions. For these reasons, a test cycle was developed from real driving data collected from a car. This new test cycle was implemented on an inertia disc brake dynamometer appositely designed for brake particle emission studies. Results reveal that, for the brake system used as an example, the obtained emission factors for the urban driving conditions studied are comparable to EURO 6 regulations in terms of particle number and comparable to EURO 4 levels in terms of mass with brake emission factors equal to 4.37-6.46 x 10(11) particles/km and 44-48 mg/km, respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2020
Keywords
Car brake emission factors, non-exhaust emissions, real driving cycle, airborne particles, inertia brake dynamometer
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-254158 (URN)10.1177/0954407019841222 (DOI)000505423800010 ()2-s2.0-85064091423 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 324385
Note

QC 20190624

Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2020-05-02Bibliographically approved
6. A Test Stand Study on the Volatile Emissions of a Passenger Car Brake Assembly
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Test Stand Study on the Volatile Emissions of a Passenger Car Brake Assembly
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Atmosphere, ISSN 2073-4433, E-ISSN 2073-4433Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272856 (URN)
Note

QC 20200505

Available from: 2020-05-01 Created: 2020-05-01 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
7. A concept for reducing PM10 emissions for car brakes by 50%
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A concept for reducing PM10 emissions for car brakes by 50%
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272857 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2017.06.018 (DOI)000422803000013 ()2-s2.0-85021831345 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20200505

Available from: 2020-05-01 Created: 2020-05-01 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved

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