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Tyre/road interaction: A holistic approach to the functional requirements of road surfaces regarding noise and rolling resistance
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials. VTI.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8057-6031
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Increased fuel consumption, increased greenhouse gas emission, diminishing real-estate prices and increased health issues are some of  the negative effects on the climate, on the environment and on the society from tyre/road rolling resistance and noise. The first two aspects are affected by energy dissipation in the tyre/pavement contact and are related to rolling resistance. The other two aspects, real-estate property prices and health and comfort issues, are related to noise.

This thesis uses a holistic approach to analyse functional properties of the tyre/road contact interaction. It studies how measures taken for different functional properties may correlate and studies the limits in evaluation of mitigation strategies considering the precision in available measurement methods.

The investigative work included an examination of how reproducible CPX measurements are for evaluating tyre/road noise. Furthermore, the procedure for rubber hardness correction was subjected to a specific evaluation. Noise and rolling resistance measurements were performed on drums and the results were compared to on-road measurements for 50 different tyre models. Additionally, the consistency of rolling resistance measurements on roads was evaluated.

Two mitigation strategies are discussed in this thesis: (i) selection of tyres, and (ii) grinding of road surfaces. For the first strategy, more than 600 CPX and more than 500 rolling resistance measurements were carried out with 50 different tyre models to evaluate potential gain in selecting the best tyres. For the second strategy 8 road sections were ground and the effect of grinding was evaluated with respect to noise and rolling resistance.

The results indicate that when the CPX method is performed correctly, it can consistently evaluate tyre/road noise. Recommendations on how uncertainty in the CPX method can be reduced are included in the thesis. Additionally, recommendations on how the tyre rubber hardness measurements can be improved are also discussed, which is relevant not only for noise measurements but also for rolling resistance measurements.

The selection of tyres is the mitigation strategy that has the largest potential to reduce noise and rolling resistance, yet it can take time to be implemented. On the other hand, surface grinding leads to substantial noise and rolling resistance reductions and can more readily be implemented.

Noise and rolling resistance measurements on roads were compared to measurements on drums and no correlation was found. This indicates that drum results cannot be directly compared to tyre performances on roads.

Values presented on the EU tyre lables were shown to not correlate to on-road measurements; this calls for a re-examination of the tyre labelling procedures. Regarding labelling of road surfaces, results in this thesis indicate that reliable acoustical properties can be obtained with the CPX method in a reproducible way and suggests that acoustical labelling of road surfaces is feasible with a precision of 1 dB.

Abstract [sv]

Energiförluster, ökad bränsleförbrukning, sänkta fastighetspriser och ökade hälsoproblem är några av de negativa effekter på klimat, miljö och samhälle som följer av rullmotstånd och buller från vägyta/däck. De första två effekterna uppkommer eftersom det uppstår energiförluster i vägyta/däckkontakten och är kopplat till rullmotstånd. De andra två effekterna, minskade fastighetspriser och hälsoproblem, är kopplade till buller.

                           Den här avhandlingen utnyttjar ett holistiskt helhetsgrepp för att analysera funktionsegenskaper hos vägyta/däckkontakten. Den studerar hur åtgärder för olika funktionsegenskaper kan korrelera, och studerar begränsningarna i utvärderingen av olika åtgärder med utgångspunkt i precisionen hos tillgängliga mätmetoder.

                           Den experimentella delen av avhandlingen omfattar en undersökning av CPX-metodens reproducerbarhet vid mätning av vägyta/däckbuller. Dessutom undersöktes specifikt korrektionsmetoden för gummihårdhet. Buller- och rullmotståndmätningar genomfördes på trumma för 50 olika däckmodeller och jämfördes med mätningar gjorda på vägyta. Därutöver gjordes en enkel utvärdering av pålitligheten hos rullmotståndmätningar på vägytor.

                           De två åtgärdsstrategier som utvärderas i den avhandlingen är: (i) val av däck, och (ii) slipning av vägytor. För att utvärdera den första strategin genomfördes mer än 600 CPX och mer än 500 rullmotståndsmätningar med 50 olika däckmodeller för att kvantifiera potentiella vinster när man väljer de däck som har bäst prestanda. För att utvärdera den andra strategin slipades åtta vägsträckor och både buller och rullmotstånd mättes före och efter slipningen.

Resultaten visar att när CPX-metoden genomförs på ett korrekt sätt är den ett robust verktyg för att utvärdera vägyta/däckbuller. Avhandlingen inkluderar även rekommendationer om hur osäkerheter hos CPX-metoden kan minskas. Detta innebär även rekommendationer om hur man genomför gummihårdhetsmätningar för att minska osäkerheten, vilket är relevant även för rullmotståndsmätningar.

Resultaten visade att val av däck är den strategi som har potential att leda till den största förbättringen. Nackdelen är dock att det kan ta tid att implementera genom t.ex. skatteväxling eller bonus-malussystem. Slipning av vägytor, å andra sidan, kan enklare implementeras direkt av väghållaren och leder ändå till betydande buller och rullmotståndsförbättringar.

Buller- och rullmotståndsmätningar på vägyta jämfördes med mätningar på trumma utan att visa någon signifikant korrelation. Detta betyder att trummätningar inte direkt kan jämföras med hur däck presterar under verkliga förhållanden på väg.

Värden som anges via den EU-gemensamma däckmärkningen visades inte korrelera med mätningar på vägbanor, vilket pekar på behovet av en omprövning av däckmärkningsmetoden.  Utifrån den noggrannhet som CPX-metoden uppvisar skulle det också vara möjligt att införa akustisk märkning av vägbanor med en noggrannhet av 1 dB.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2020. , p. 97
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 2013
Keywords [en]
Road, surface, noise, rolling resistance, tyre, mitigation
Keywords [sv]
Vägbeläggning, vägyta, textur, buller, rullmotstånd, däck
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272964ISBN: 978-91-7873-536-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-272964DiVA, id: diva2:1427943
Public defence
2020-05-29, Zoom Webinar -https://kth-se.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_uBAlg-W_RTKIVOsq7xualw, Du som saknar dator/datorvana kan kontakta thoyra@kth.se för information / Use the e-mail address if you need technical assistance, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration
Note

QC 20200507

Available from: 2020-05-08 Created: 2020-05-04 Last updated: 2020-05-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A round robin test on the Close-Proximity method: Comparison of results from four different CPX trailers measuring tyre/road noise properties of 10 Swedish road surfaces
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A round robin test on the Close-Proximity method: Comparison of results from four different CPX trailers measuring tyre/road noise properties of 10 Swedish road surfaces
(English)In: Noise Control Engineering Journal, ISSN 0736-2501, E-ISSN 2168-8710Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The publication in 2017 of ISO documents 11819-2 (CPX method) and 11819-3 (reference tyres) has made it possible to conduct measurements of noise properties of road surfaces in a standard and repeatable way. However, it is still not well-known what variations one may expect between different CPX equipment. A comparison of CPX trailers in the Netherlands in 2017 indicated that different trailers led to comparable results, but only two road surfaces were used, and all measurements were made close in time and location. In practical measurements, more variations in CPX equipment occurs and measurements on a certain test surface cannot take place on a predetermined day or even week. This study used four CPX trailers, of different designs, and the measurements were made over a time period of 90 days; something that may well happen whenever an authority or organization orders a CPX measurement. In this paper the test equipment and tested road surfaces are described, and the variations between measurements are analyzed. The maximum CPX level difference between participating equipment when taking the sample means (average without any correction for different number of observations on the surfaces etc) was 1.57 dB for tyre H1 and 1.29 for tyre P1, which is comparable to the typical uncertainty values found in the standard ISO 11819-2:2017. A statistical analysis indicated that the main effects (adjusted for imbalance in the sampling design) on noise levels for three of the four CPX trailers did not differ more than 0.41 dB between each other while the fourth trailer, that had an unreliable calibration, differed from the other three in 0.94 dB. The paper also shows the relevance and importance of applying the corrections found in the standards and that having an enclosure over the tested tyres leads to a slightly sharper peak in the frequency spectra.

National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Transport Science, Transport Infrastructure
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272963 (URN)
Note

QC 20200505

Available from: 2020-05-04 Created: 2020-05-04 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluation ofuncertainty on Shore hardness measurements of tyre treads and implications totyre/road noise measurements with the Close Proximity method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation ofuncertainty on Shore hardness measurements of tyre treads and implications totyre/road noise measurements with the Close Proximity method
2020 (English)In: Measurement - Journal of the International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO), ISSN 0263-2241Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Shore hardness measurements subject rubber bodies to standardized indentations. While easily performed, the measurements are subject to uncertainties. Although typical variances for Shore hardness are found in standards, operator and instrument effects are not well described, requiring statistically designed experiments to estimate effects and variance components. This paper focuses on uncertainty in Shore A hardness measurements of tyre tread elements and quantifies operator and instrument effects.

Evaluation of uncertainty of Shore A measurements were performed on tyres under controlled conditions using three instruments, two tyres and five operators. Results show that the operator variance component and instrument effects are larger than the reference variance contribution in ISO 11819-3:2017. The interaction between operator and instrument is estimated to be the largest source of variation, while operator and instrument main effects are of similar size as the error component. Recommendations to reduce uncertainties include ignoring instantaneous values and requiring an instrument stand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
hardness, tyre, Shore A, uncertainty, variation, CPX hardness correction
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272841 (URN)10.1016/j.measurement.2020.107882 (DOI)
Note

QC 20200505

Available from: 2020-04-30 Created: 2020-04-30 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
3. Acoustical performance of winter tyres on in-service road surfaces
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustical performance of winter tyres on in-service road surfaces
2019 (English)In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910X, Vol. 153, p. 30-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exposure to excessively high noise levels is a relevant health problem in Europe and road traffic noise is the most widespread noise source. When considering cold climate countries, the available scientific literature on noise emission properties of winter tyres is still very limited. In order to contribute into filling this knowledge gap, this paper investigates the acoustical performance of different types of tyres, with focus on winter tyres, on different road surfaces, at different speeds, and with different states of wear. The results indicate that studded winter tyres have, indeed, an increased noise level at frequencies between 315 Hz and 10 kHz, having a significantly different response especially at frequencies higher than 4 kHz. The acoustical response also depends on the tyre type when comparing different road surfaces, as a result of conflicting vibrational and aerodynamic noise generation mechanisms. Additionally, the relationship between labelled and measured values was explored, however, no statistically significant relationship was found between them (and labelling is not applied for studded tyres). A frequency spectrum correction was attempted based on previous measurements on an ISO track, which reduced the difference between measured and labelled values, however, further investigation is still required to properly understand differences between label and road measurements, where the label is determined on a test track with a special, smooth surface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Pavement, Tyre, Noise, Studs, Winter, M+S
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-250570 (URN)10.1016/j.apacoust.2019.03.025 (DOI)000468251700004 ()2-s2.0-85064087138 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190618

Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
4. Rolling resistance evaluation of winter tyres on in-service road surfaces
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rolling resistance evaluation of winter tyres on in-service road surfaces
2020 (English)In: Tire Science and Technology, ISSN 0090-8657Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Rolling resistance, the energy dissipated due to the rolling movement of a pneumatic tyre over a surface, is a relevant factor that should be considered when aiming at a more energy efficient road infrastructure as well as for reducing CO2 emissions. The energy dissipation, as a result mainly of hysteretic losses, is dependent on the tyre, on the road surface, and operating temperature, among other factors. In this paper, 50 different tyres of five different types (all season tyres, summer tyres, winter tyres without studs, winter tyres with studs and winter tyres with hard particles) were evaluated with respect to rolling resistance on two different road surfaces, at three different test speeds and different states of tyre wear. In addition to the full-scale field tests, a drum facility was used to evaluate rolling resistance of the same tyres in a more controlled environment. This resulted in more than 500 measurements that were analysed in this paper. Earlier, no data regarding rolling resistance of studded winter tyres have been published and there have been very few studies, if any, comparing measurements on drums with measurements on road pavements. In the field, rolling resistance was significantly depending on tyre type, and many tested tyres performed differently on the two surfaces. No significant correlation was found between labelled tyre values and rolling resistance measured on roads, nor between rolling resistance measured on roads and on a drum facility. Better correlations were found between labelled tyre values and our own drum results. This calls for a review of the relevance of the energy labelling procedure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Tire Society and Allen Press Publishing Services, 2020
Keywords
rolling resistance, tyre, pavement, surface, winter
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272840 (URN)10.2346/tire.20.190225 (DOI)
Note

QC 20200505

Available from: 2020-04-30 Created: 2020-04-30 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
5. Negative texture, positive for the environment: effects of horizontal grinding of asphalt pavements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Negative texture, positive for the environment: effects of horizontal grinding of asphalt pavements
2019 (English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A pavement surface having deflections from a plane mostly directed downwards in valleys is said to have a “negative texture”, in contrast to a “positive texture” dominated by peaks. Negative textures are typical of porous asphalt pavements, but another way to achieve this feature is to grind off the peaks of the surface. This paper explores the effects of grinding off texture peaks in the horizontal plane on a number of Swedish asphalt pavements in order to reduce noise and rolling resistance. Noise measurements were made to evaluate the ground-off surfaces versus the original surfaces, and, in most cases, also rolling resistance, texture and friction were also evaluated. It was found that grinding led to a more negative texture, tyre/road noise reductions up to 3 dB and tyre/road rolling resistance reductions up to 15%. It is concluded that horizontal grinding provides a maintenance operation with a significant potential for reduction of noise and rolling resistance, without sacrificing friction, though with limited longevity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2019
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-250569 (URN)10.1080/14680629.2019.1610476 (DOI)2-s2.0-85065057324 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190819

Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved

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