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Wireless Communication for Critical Control: Analysis and Experimental Validation
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Network and Systems Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4158-9424
2020 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Wireless communications are an essential enabler of the Industry 4.0 vision, as they have the potentiality to be deployed in scenarios where the installation of cables is impractical. Nevertheless, the most critical control applications that require ultra low latency and high reliability, are currently only supported by wired communication systems such as Ethernet for Control Automation Technology (EtherCAT) and Process Field Net (PROFINET). In this thesis, we investigate the design of the essential components of a proprietary wireless technology named Wireless High Performance (WirelessHP), which targets to achieve comparable performance to the wired technologies.

In wireless communications, the bottleneck to obtain the desired latency performance lies in the physical layer, where the packet transmission time is too long due to the long overhead and the fixed packet structure that industrial wireless systems have inherited from consumer applications. To address this bottleneck, we propose to considerably reduce the size of the packet preambles while maintaining the preamble’s functions, and we experimentally validate the design by a software defined radio implementation. To further improve the latency performance and guarantee a requested probability of correct packet reception (reliability), we propose a data-driven approach for the wireless channel characterization. This allows us to tune the parameters of the Cyclic Prefix-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing protocol to minimize the packet transmission time under a given reliability requirement. Although the proposed methods are derived for WirelessHP, we also extend and apply them to the physical layer design of 5th generation (5G) New Radio, for which we characterize the reliable minimum delay.

The major contributions of this thesis are the physical layer design of Wireless HP as well as the underlying methodologies that allow us to achieve wireless delay and reliability performance comparable to those offered by EtherCAT and PROFINET technologies. Moreover, the results of the thesis show the potential to influence other wireless communication standards and eventually integrate the advantages of Wireless HP and those standards.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2020.
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2020:25
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-273002ISBN: 978-91-7873-526-6 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-273002DiVA, id: diva2:1428281
Public defence
2020-05-29, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

The link for Zoom meeting 

https://kth-se.zoom.us/j/63783763858

QC 20200505

Available from: 2020-05-05 Created: 2020-05-05 Last updated: 2020-05-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Low-Latency Networking: Where Latency Lurks and How to Tame It
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Latency Networking: Where Latency Lurks and How to Tame It
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the IEEE, ISSN 0018-9219, E-ISSN 1558-2256, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While the current generation of mobile and fixed communication networks has been standardized for mobile broadband services, the next generation is driven by the vision of the Internet of Things and mission-critical communication services requiring latency in the order of milliseconds or submilliseconds. However, these new stringent requirements have a large technical impact on the design of all layers of the communication protocol stack. The cross-layer interactions are complex due to the multiple design principles and technologies that contribute to the layers' design and fundamental performance limitations. We will be able to develop low-latency networks only if we address the problem of these complex interactions from the new point of view of submilliseconds latency. In this paper, we propose a holistic analysis and classification of the main design principles and enabling technologies that will make it possible to deploy low-latency wireless communication networks. We argue that these design principles and enabling technologies must be carefully orchestrated to meet the stringent requirements and to manage the inherent tradeoffs between low latency and traditional performance metrics. We also review currently ongoing standardization activities in prominent standards associations, and discuss open problems for future research.

National Category
Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239002 (URN)10.1109/JPROC.2018.2863960 (DOI)000460669300004 ()2-s2.0-85052809127 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20181115

Available from: 2018-11-14 Created: 2018-11-14 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
2. Packet Detection by a Single OFDM Symbol in URLLC for Critical Industrial Control: A Realistic Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Packet Detection by a Single OFDM Symbol in URLLC for Critical Industrial Control: A Realistic Study
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, ISSN 0733-8716, E-ISSN 1558-0008, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 933-946Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ultra-high reliable and low-latency communication (URLLC)is envisaged to support emerging applications with strict latency and reliability requirements. Critical industrial control is among the most important URLLC applications where the stringent requirements make the deployment of wireless networks critical, especially as far as latency is concerned. Since the amount of data exchanged in critical industrial communications is generally small, an effective way to reduce the latency is to minimize the packet's synchronization overhead, starting from the physical layer (PHY). This paper proposes to use a short one-symbol PHY preamble for critical wireless industrial communications, reducing significantly the transmission latency with respect to other wireless standards. Dedicated packet detection and synchronization algorithms are discussed, analyzed, and tuned to ensure that the required reliability level is achieved with such extremely short preamble. Theoretical analysis, simulations, and experiments show that detection error rates smaller than 10(-6) can be achieved with the proposed preamble while minimizing the latencies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
Keywords
Packet detection, URLLC, differential detection, transmission prediction, USRP validation
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-248321 (URN)10.1109/JSAC.2019.2898761 (DOI)000461853500018 ()2-s2.0-85061983989 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190410

Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
3. Using a Large Data Set to Improve Industrial Wireless Communications Latency, Reliability, and Security
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using a Large Data Set to Improve Industrial Wireless Communications Latency, Reliability, and Security
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2019 (English)In: IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, ISSN 1932-4529, E-ISSN 1941-0115, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 6-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Trealize the Industry 4.0 vision and enable mobile connectivity and flexible deployment in harsh industrial environments, wireless communication is essential. But before wireless communications technology can be widely deployed for critical control applications, first it must be assessed, and that requires a comprehensive characterization of the wireless channel. This can be done by analyzing large amounts of wireless data collected from different industrial environments. In this article, we discuss the possibilities offered by a recently published industrial wireless data set. This data set is more exhaustive than measurements previously reported. We show two cases of how those data have been applied to improve latency performance and to investigate the feasibility of physical-layer security techniques for wireless communication in industrial environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-249890 (URN)10.1109/MIE.2019.2893037 (DOI)000462406900003 ()2-s2.0-85064351390 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20190426

Available from: 2019-04-26 Created: 2019-04-26 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
4. Delay Optimization for Industrial Wireless Control Systems based on Channel Characterization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Delay Optimization for Industrial Wireless Control Systems based on Channel Characterization
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(English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272991 (URN)
Note

QC 20200506

Available from: 2020-05-04 Created: 2020-05-04 Last updated: 2020-05-06Bibliographically approved
5. Reliable Minimum Cycle Time of 5G New Radio Based on the Wireless HP Design Principles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliable Minimum Cycle Time of 5G New Radio Based on the Wireless HP Design Principles
(English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-272992 (URN)
Note

QC 20200506

Available from: 2020-05-04 Created: 2020-05-04 Last updated: 2020-05-06Bibliographically approved

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