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Metals in used and unused metalworking fluids: X-ray fluorescence spectrometry as a screening test
KTH.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2145-3650
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2020 (English)In: Contact Dermatitis, ISSN 0105-1873, E-ISSN 1600-0536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) is a well-known cause of occupational contact dermatitis. Objectives: We aimed to (1) determine the amount of nickel, chromium, and cobalt in large samples of used and unused MWFs collected from metalworking plants in Denmark, and (2) evaluate a handheld x-ray fluorescence (XRF) device as a screening instrument for metals in MWFs. Methods: A handheld XRF device was used to screen for metals in MWFs. All samples were also analyzed for concentrations of nickel, chromium, and cobalt using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). Results: GFAAS analysis showed that 13 of 80 samples (16.3%) contained >1 mg/kg (ppm) nickel (range: 6.4-17.7 mg/kg), 3 of 80 (3.8%) contained >1 (range: 1.4-3.1) mg/kg chromium, and 1 of 80 (1.3%) contained 1.3 mg/kg cobalt. XRF-screening detected nickel in eight samples (range: 2.5-15.5 mg/kg), but only one sample with 3.0 (±0.5) mg/kg was found subsequently to contain 9.9 (0.02) mg/kg nickel by GFAAS. Although no chromium was found by XRF analysis, cobalt was found in two samples with 6 (±1.5) mg/kg and 5 (±1.5) mg/kg, subsequently found to contain 0.1 (±0.01) mg/kg and 0.08 (±0.01) mg/kg by GFAAS. Similar concentrations of nickel were found in used (N = 6, range: 6.4-17.7 mg/kg) and unused MWFs (N = 7, range: 9.1-17.3 mg/kg). Conclusion: Considerable levels of nickel, chromium, and cobalt were found in some used and unused MWFs indicating that these might represent a source of metal allergy. The XRF device is a poor screening test for these metals in MWFs. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2020.
Keywords [en]
allergic contact dermatitis, chromium, cobalt, metals, metalworking fluids, nickel, X-ray fluorescence
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-274011DOI: 10.1111/cod.13533ISI: 000551531600002PubMedID: 32212165Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85083771611OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-274011DiVA, id: diva2:1449075
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QC 20200629

Available from: 2020-06-29 Created: 2020-06-29 Last updated: 2022-06-26Bibliographically approved

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Hedberg, Yolanda

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