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Wide Scan, Active K-Band, Direct-Integrated Phased Array for Efficient High-Power Tx-Generation
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering and Fusion Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7091-8026
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering and Fusion Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7269-5241
2023 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, ISSN 0018-926X, E-ISSN 1558-2221, Vol. 71, no 9, p. 7579-7584Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this communication, we propose a new wide-scan active direct-integrated 1×5 phased array antenna (AIPAA) for mm-Wave applications. The AIPAA's unit-cell comprises three K-band miniaturized tapered slot elements, a GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) as a power amplifier (PA), a stability circuit, an input matching network (M.N.), and biasing components. The tapered slot antenna element is reshaped so that its input impedance closely matches the optimal load impedance of the HEMT (Zopt = 6 + j38 Ω at 22 GHz), which enhances the system efficiency. The peak-integrated PAs' power-added efficiency (PAEp) is ≥ 56 % with ≤ 9% variation over scan coverage (g±50°) at 1.5 dB power backoff from P1dB. The peak AIPAA system power-added efficiency (PAEs) is 51% with a peak array radiation efficiency of 92%. The relative frequency bandwidth with PAEp above 25% is between 9% and 13% over the scan range. The proposed AIPAA demonstrates less than 0.9 and 1 dB scanloss over the scan coverage in terms of antenna array gain and PAs' power gain (Gp), respectively. The peak PA-integrated array gain and EIRP at P1dB of 24 dBi and 51 dBm are achieved, respectively. The proposed AIPAA's size is 18 × 58 × 17 mm3 with a cell of 9.2 × 6.5 × 1.8 mm3. The measurements are in good agreement with electromagnetic and circuit co-simulation results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023. Vol. 71, no 9, p. 7579-7584
Keywords [en]
Active integrated phased array antenna, beam steering, direct integration, mm-Wave antenna
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Telecommunications Communication Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-338574DOI: 10.1109/TAP.2023.3281075ISI: 001169294600051Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85160708226OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-338574DiVA, id: diva2:1810322
Note

QC 20240404

Available from: 2023-11-07 Created: 2023-11-07 Last updated: 2024-05-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Advancements in RF Front-End Efficiency for Next-Generation Communication Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advancements in RF Front-End Efficiency for Next-Generation Communication Systems
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The increasing demand for higher data rates and capacity encompasses diverse applications in modern wireless systems. This necessitates addressing the limitations of conventional wireless systems, e.g. bandwidth constraints, efficiency issues, link budget limitations, and size and cost constraints. To achieve high data rates in the gigabit-per-second (Gbit/s), wider bandwidths in the gigahertz (GHz) range are required, leading to a transition to the microwave and millimeter wave (mm-wave) frequency band. However, this transition presents additional challenges, such as increased insertion- and free space path losses. All of these challenges are particularly critical in the Radio Frequency (RF) front-end, which comprises antennas along with other necessary RF elements, e.g. Power Amplifiers (PAs), that play a significant role in determining overall system performance. In this thesis, our research focuses on advancements in RF front-end efficiency— encompassing energy, spectral, size, and cost efficiency— to contribute to meeting the growing demands of next-generation communication systems. 

Phased array antennas are widely utilized in modern communication networks to enhance radiation characteristics such as gain and scan capability. Additionally, the direct-integration technique, which removes the need for any intermediate 50 Ω interface impedance, offers improvements in efficiency, size- and cost reduction. This thesis develops active direct-integrated phased array antenna (AIPAA) designs that utilize a combination of wide-scan phased array antennas and direct-integration technique. The presented designs advance the radiation performance through the phased array antenna, enhance the overall efficiency of the antenna and PAs combination via direct-integration, eliminate matching networks' losses through direct-integration, and remove RF switch elements by introducing a half-duplex array. The active integration approach employs an interdisciplinary co-design method to address complex interactions and mutual coupling in the proposed compact-size AIPAAs. In this thesis, the mutual interactions that can impact the system performance have been theoretically and practically discussed in our proposed coupling reduction approach. Besides, a seamless integration of filtering functionality, using proposed periodic structures, into a Vivaldi antenna is employed to design a high-selectivity filtering antenna with wide out-of-band suppression. These proposed designs and approaches help to enhance the performance by improving the spectral- and energy efficiencies, reducing the size, and minimizing costs.

Another approach in this thesis, utilizing irregularly partitioned phased arrays, offers a means to reduce the number of transmitter/receiver modules (system simplification) while maintaining functionality in next-generation wireless systems. An innovative fast-partitioning iterative optimization approach, introduced in the last part of the thesis, overcomes the computational cost/time of phased arrays' exact partitioning while resulting in satisfactory radiation characteristics over wide-scan coverage for large arrays.

Abstract [sv]

Den ökande efterfrågan på högre datahastigheter och kapacitet omfattar olika tillämpningar inom moderna trådlösa system. Detta kräver att man tar itu med begränsningarna hos konventionella trådlösa system, t.ex. bandbreddsrestriktioner, effektivitetsproblem, samt länkbudget-, storleks- och kostnadsbegränsningar. För att uppnå höga datahastigheter i gigabit per sekund (Gbit/s) krävs en större bandbredd i gigahertzområdet, vilket leder till en övergång till mikrovågs- och millimetervågsfrekvensbandet. Denna övergång innebär dock ytterligare utmaningar, såsom ökad insättningsförlust och fri rymdledningsförlust. Alla dessa utmaningar är särskilt kritiska i Radio Frequency (RF) front-end, som omfattar antenner tillsammans med andra nödvändiga RF-element, t.ex. effektförstärkare (PAs), och spelar en betydande roll för att bestämma den totala systemprestandan. I denna avhandling fokuserar vår forskning på framsteg inom RF front-end effektivitet - som omfattar energi-, spektral-, storleks- och kostnadseffektivitet - för att bidra till att möta de växande kraven hos nästa generations kommunikationssystem.   

Fasstyrda antenner används i stor utsträckning i moderna kommunikationsnät för att förbättra strålningskaraktäristikerna som förstärkning och skanningsförmåga. Dessutom erbjuder den direktintegrerade tekniken, vilken eliminerar behovet av någon mellanliggande 50 Ω gränssnittsimpedans, förbättringar i effektivitet, storlek och kostnadsreducering. Denna avhandling utvecklar aktiva direktintegrerade fasstyrda antenner (AIPAAs) med ett stort utstyrningsområden.  De främjar strålningsprestanda från fasstyrda antenner, förbättrar kombinationen av antennelementet och PAs gemensamma effektivitet genom direktintegration, eliminerar matchningsnätverksförluster genom direktintegration och tar bort RF-switchelement genom att introducera en halvduplexarray. Den aktiva integrationsmetoden använder en tvärvetenskaplig samutvecklingsmetod för att hantera komplexa interaktioner och ömsesidig koppling i de utvecklade kompakta AIPAAs. Den ömsesidiga kopplingen kan påverka systemprestanda, vilket teoretiskt och praktiskt behandlas i vår föreslagna kopplingsreduktionsmetod i denna avhandling. Dessutom utvecklas en integration av filterfunktionalitet, med hjälp av föreslagna periodiska strukturer, i en Vivaldi-antenn för att utforma en högselektiv filterantenn med bred och hög dämpning utanför det önskade frekvensintervallet. Dessa föreslagna design och tillvägagångssätt förbättrar inte bara prestanda i termer av både spektral- och energieffektivitet, utan minskar också storlek och kostnad.

Ur ett annat perspektiv erbjuder användningen av oregelbundet grupperad matning av fasstyrda antenner ett sätt att minska antalet sändare/mottagarmoduler (systemförenkling) samtidigt som funktionaliteten bibehålls i nästa generations trådlösa system. Ett innovativt snabb teknik for att hitta bra grupperingar av aperturen är presenterad i den sista delen av avhandlingen. Tekniken minskar den beräkningsmässiga kostnaden/tiden för att utvärdera lösningar från en exakta uppdelningsalgoritm. Resulten ger en tillfredsställande strålningskaraktäristik för bredskannande täckning för stora antenner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2024. p. 80
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2024:46
Keywords
phased array, direct-integration, coupling reduction, irregular array, energy and spectral efficiency, RF front-end, periodic structure, wide-scan array., fasstyrda antenner, direktintegration, kopplingsreduktion, gruppantenner med oregelbundet indelad matning, energi- och spektraleffektivitet, RF front-end, periodisk struktur, bredskannande array.
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-346265 (URN)978-91-8040-926-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-06-05, https://kth-se.zoom.us/j/64147253748, D3, Lindstedtsvägen 9, Stockholm, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20240513

Available from: 2024-05-13 Created: 2024-05-10 Last updated: 2024-06-03Bibliographically approved

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Emadeddin, AhmadJonsson, B. Lars G.

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