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Sex differences in the association between insulin resistance and non-fatal myocardial infarction across glycaemic states
Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden; Heart, Vascular and Neuro Theme, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
Cardiology Unit, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden; Capio St Görans Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4467-0132
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2024 (English)In: Cardiovascular Diabetology, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Females are generally less prone to cardiovascular (CV) events than males, but this protection is trumped by diabetes. The mechanism behind the increased relative risk in females with diabetes is not fully understood. Insulin resistance (IR) is suggested to be a more important contributor to CV morbidity in females than in males. We aim to investigate differences in the association between IR indexes (Homeostatic Model Assessment of IR - HOMA-IR, visceral adiposity index – VAI, and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol - TG/HDL-C index), and a first non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) across different glycaemic states. Methods: IR indexes were calculated in a population with (n = 696) and without (n = 707) a first non-fatal MI, free from known diabetes. MI cases were investigated at least six weeks after the event. All participants were categorized by an oral glucose tolerance test as having normal glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or newly diagnosed diabetes. Comparison of proportion of glycaemic states by sex was tested by chi-square test. The associations between sex, a first non-fatal MI, IR indexes, and traditional CV risk factors were analysed by multivariate logistic regression models. Continuous variables were logarithmically transformed. Results: Of the total population 19% were females and 81% males, out of whom 47% and 50% had a first non-fatal MI, respectively. Compared with males, females were older, less often smokers, with lower body mass index and higher total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The proportion of glycaemic states did not differ between the sexes (p = 0.06). Females were less insulin resistant than males, especially among cases and with normal glucose tolerance. In logistic regression models adjusted for major CV risk factors including sex, the associations between VAI and TG/HDL-C index and a first non-fatal MI remained significant only in females (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals: 1.7, 1.0-2.9, and 1.9, 1.1–3.4 respectively). Conclusions: These results support the assumption that IR indexes based on anthropometrics and lipid panel, i.e., VAI and TG/HDL-C, could be a better measure of IR and CV-predictor for non-fatal MI in females, even without glycaemic perturbations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature , 2024. Vol. 23, no 1, article id 25
Keywords [en]
Cardiovascular disease, Females, HOMA-IR, PAROKRANK, Prediabetes, Triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein index, Visceral adiposity index
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Endocrinology and Diabetes
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URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-342635DOI: 10.1186/s12933-023-02093-yISI: 001142867000001PubMedID: 38218814Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85182252110OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-342635DiVA, id: diva2:1831229
Note

QC 20240125

Available from: 2024-01-25 Created: 2024-01-25 Last updated: 2024-06-19Bibliographically approved

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