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Concrete pavements’ repair techniques and numerical assessment of dowel bar load transfer efficiency
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering. (Concrete Structures)ORCID iD: 0009-0003-3151-9067
2024 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Concrete pavements are a suitable alternative for high-traffic volume roads, concentrated loads and roads exposed to severe weather conditions. In Sweden, among other reasons, the scarcity of concrete pavements is attributed to the need for more national knowledge and expertise in the field. The most recent concrete pavement was constructed seventeen years ago in Uppsala. Concrete pavements are renowned for their longevity and durability. Jointed plain concrete pavements (JPCP) are the most frequent type of concrete pavements. However, it is important to note that the joints in concrete pavements are critical components that can lead to various distresses, necessitating rehabilitation. Rehabilitating concrete pavements is particularly challenging in areas with heavy traffic and requires substitute routes because of the imperative to maintain traffic flow during construction. Developing effective detours might involve significant alterations to the existing routes or building temporary roads, which entails substantial cost investment and time consumption.

A literature review has been conducted to study the available methods that can be used to repair concrete pavements. The strategy for selecting a repair technique is based on rehabilitating the concrete pavement within a short work window, deterring traffic congestion and ensuring the long service life of the pavements. The study showed that the precast concrete technology based on the precast slab is a promising technology that effectively shortens the lane closure for repairing damaged pavements and produces durable pavements, thereby extending the service life of pavements. However, the construction or rehabilitation cost of concrete pavement using precast slabs is 1.6 to 4 times higher than that of conventional cast-in-place concrete. Therefore, rehabilitation using precast slabs is inappropriate for low-traffic roads and temporary routes.

Joints are crucial for the rehabilitation of concrete pavements with precast slabs. The structural performance of concrete pavement is, however, greatly affected by the joints, as the presence of joints creates a discontinuity between adjacent slabs and thus diminishes the load transfer to the abutting slab. To maintain the structural integrity of the pavement system, dowel bars are used at the transverse joints.

A numerical study has been conducted to evaluate the influence of various dowel-related parameters on the interaction between adjacent concrete slabs. The study revealed that the dowel bar’s position, mislocation and diameter had an obvious effect on joint efficiency, while the bond between the concrete slab and the dowel bar slightly affected the load transfer efficiency. It was also investigated that the dowel bar’s intended performance, i.e., load transfer efficiency, was reduced as the joint gap between adjacent slabs increased.

Abstract [sv]

Betongbeläggningar är ett lämpligt alternativ för högtrafikerade vägar, koncentrerad belastning och vägar utsatta för svåra väderförhållanden. I Sverige är betongvägar sällsynta vilket bl.a. beror på brist på kunskap och kompetens. Den senaste betongvägen byggdes för sjutton år sedan i Uppsala.Betongbeläggningar är kända för sin långa livslängd och hållbarhet. Den vanligaste typen av betongvägar är fogade, oarmerade betongbeläggningar. Ändå är det viktigt att notera att fogarna i betongbeläggningar är kritiska komponenters om kan leda till olika olägenheter, vilket kräver rehabilitering. Att rehabilitera betongbeläggningar är särskilt utmanande i områden med intensiv trafik som kräver ersättningsvägar på grund av nödvändigheten att upprätthålla trafikflödet under reparationsarbetena. Att ta fram en effektiv omledning av trafiken kan innebära antingen väsentliga förändringar och förlängningar av befintliga rutter eller byggande av tillfälliga vägar, vilket medför betydande kostnadsinvesteringar och tidsåtgång.

En litteraturöversikt har genomförts för att studera de tillgängliga metoderna som kan användas för att reparera betongbeläggningar. Strategin för valet av reparationsmetod bygger på att rehabilitera betongbeläggningen inom ett kort arbetsfönster, förhindra trafikstockningar och säkerställa lång livslängd för beläggningen. Studien visade att förtillverkade betongplattor är en lovande metod som effektivt förkortar avstängningen av körfält för att reparera skadad beläggning och producerar hållbara betongbeläggningar med lång livslängd. Rehabiliterings kostnaden för betongbeläggning med prefabricerade plattor är emellertid 1,6 till 4 gånger högre än den för konventionell platsgjuten betong. Därför är rehabilitering med förtillverkade betongplattor olämplig för vägar med låg trafik och temporära rutter.

Fogar är vidare nödvändiga vid reparation med förtillverkade betongplattor.Betongbeläggningens strukturella prestanda påverkas dock kraftigt av fogar, eftersom förekomsten av fogar skapar en diskontinuitet mellan intilliggande plattor och därmed minskat lastöverföringen till den angränsande plattan. För att upprätthålla den strukturella integriteten hos beläggningssystemet används dymlingar i de tvärgående fogar.

En numerisk studie har genomförts med olika parametrar för att utvärdera dymlingens inverkan på fogens effektivitet. Studien visade att dymlingens position, felplacering och diameter har en tydlig inverkan på fogens effektivitet, medan vidhäftningen mellan dymling och betongplatta enbart verkar ha en marginell inverkan på fogens effektivitet. Studien visade också att dymlingens prestanda, dvs. lastöverföringsförmågan, minskade då fogöppningen eller glappet mellan två närliggande plattor ökade.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2024. , p. 40
Series
TRITA-ABE-DLT ; 2356
Keywords [en]
Concrete pavements, Rapid repair, Precast slabs, Dowel bar, Load transfer efficiency
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-343022ISBN: 978-91-8040-808-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-343022DiVA, id: diva2:1834639
Presentation
2024-03-12, B3, Brinellvägen, Campus KTH, https://kth-se.zoom.us/j/61107600823, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 240207

Available from: 2024-02-07 Created: 2024-02-05 Last updated: 2024-02-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Rapid Repair of Concrete Pavements Using Precast Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rapid Repair of Concrete Pavements Using Precast Technology
2023 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Pavements are essential for the country's development and comprise significant investments. Thewell-operating pavement networks sustain society for a long time. Asphalt and concrete are twocompetitive paving materials used for pavements. In Sweden, the major part of road infrastructureconsists of asphalt due to the strong asphalt industry, while only 1% of pavement networks areconcrete. Concrete pavements are common in the United States (US) and European countriessuch as Germany, Switzerland, Belgium, Austria and France.The intensity of traffic loads has increased exceptionally with time, demanding high wear-resistantpavements. Concrete pavements are superior for highways subjected to the high number of loadrepetitions or for heavy traffic volume roads. Concrete pavements are stiff, durable, wear-resistant,do not deform under permanent and concentrated loads, and have a longer service life. Damagesare rare on concrete pavement, but sooner or later, rehabilitation may be needed. Various types ofconcrete pavement exist, but this paper is limited to the jointed plain concrete pavement as it is themost common pavement system used in Sweden.The rehabilitation of concrete pavements is challenging in heavy traffic volume roads due to trafficcongestion, and if cast-in-place concrete is used, it will substantially affect traffic throughdisruptions. However, it is now possible to repair concrete pavement during shortened work–window. A technology has been introduced internationally based on precast concrete slabs and iswidely used in the US and Canada. The research in this Ph.D project aims to adapt the USexperience with precast technology to Swedish conditions, i.e., geology, studded tire effect, rulesand traditions of procurement etc. The strategy to adapt the existing experience of this innovativetechnology to Swedish conditions includes a literature survey, numerical simulation and field testsof precast concrete slabs, which will be discussed in this paper. 

Keywords
concrete pavements, precast concrete slab, repair, numericalsimulation, field test
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-334512 (URN)
Conference
14th International Symposium on Concrete Roads, Krakow, Poland, June 25 - 28, 2023
Note

QC 20230825

Available from: 2023-08-21 Created: 2023-08-21 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluation of Rapid Repair of Concrete Pavements Using Precast Concrete Technology: A Sustainable and Cost-Effective Solution
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Rapid Repair of Concrete Pavements Using Precast Concrete Technology: A Sustainable and Cost-Effective Solution
2021 (English)In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 107-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Concrete and asphalt are the two competitive materials for a highway. In Sweden, the predominant material for the highway system is asphalt. But under certain conditions, concrete pavements are competitive alternatives. For example, concrete pavements are suitable for high-traffic volume roads, roads in tunnels, concentrated loads (e.g., bus stops and industrial pavement). Besides the load-carrying capacity, the concrete pavement has many advantages such as durability (wear resistance), resistance against frost heave, environment (pollution, recycling, and low rolling resistance leading to fuel savings), fire resistance, noise limitations, brightness, evenness and aesthetics. Concrete pavements are long-lasting but need final repair. Single slabs may crack in the jointed concrete pavement due to various structural and non-structural factors. Repair and maintenance operations are, therefore, necessary to increase the service life of the structures. To avoid extended lane closures, prevent traffic congestions, and expedite the pavement construction process, precast concrete technology is a recent innovative construction method that can meet the requirement of rapid construction and rehabilitation of the pavement. This paper evaluates rapid repair techniques of concrete pavement using precast concrete technology by analysing three case studies on jointed precast concrete pavements. The study showed that the required amount of time to re-open the pavement to traffic is dramatically reduced with jointed precast concrete panels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Walter de Gruyter GmbH, 2021
Keywords
Jointed precast concrete panel, Concrete Pavements, Durability, Cracking, Repair, Maintenance
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-308561 (URN)10.2478/ncr-2021-0018 (DOI)000744589300006 ()
Note

QC 20220216

Available from: 2022-02-16 Created: 2022-02-16 Last updated: 2024-02-05Bibliographically approved
3. A parametric study to investigate the dowel bar load transfer efficiency in the jointed plain concrete pavement using a finite element model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A parametric study to investigate the dowel bar load transfer efficiency in the jointed plain concrete pavement using a finite element model
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Transverse joints are introduced in the jointed plain concrete pavement systems to mitigate the risk of cracks that can be developed due to shrinkage and temperature variations. However, the structural response of jointed plain concrete pavement is significantly affected by the transverse joint as it creates a discontinuity between the adjacent slabs. The performance of jointed plain concrete pavements at the transverse joints is enhanced by providing steel dowel bars in the traffic direction. The dowel bar provides reliable transfer of traffic loads from the loaded side of the joint to the unloaded side, known as load transfer efficiency or joint efficiency. Furthermore, dowel bars in the jointed plain concrete pavement govern the slab's alignment. Joints are critical component of concrete pavements that can lead to various distresses, necessitating rehabilitation. The repair of concrete pavement is a concern for the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket). Precast concrete slabs are efficient for repairing concrete pavement, but their performance relies on well-functioning dowel bars. In this study, a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Model (3D-FEM) is developed using the ABAQUS software to evaluate the response of jointed plain concrete pavement and analyse the flexural stress concentration in the concrete slab by considering the dowel bar at three different locations (i.e., at the concrete slabs' top, bottom and mid-height). Furthermore, the structural behaviour of jointed plain concrete pavement is also investigated for several effective parameters, such as the joint opening between adjacent slabs, mispositioning of dowel bars (horizontal, vertical and longitudinal translation), size (diameter) of dowel bar and bond between the slab and the dowel bar. The study shows that maximum load transfer efficiency occurs when the dowel bar is positioned at the mid-depth of the concrete slab. Moreover, the size and mislocation of dowel bars noticeably affect the joint effectiveness. It is also noticed that the load transfer efficiency is reduced as the gap between the adjacent slab increases. In addition, a slight impact of bond is observed on the load transfer efficiency. The obtained results can be helpful in the design and evaluation of dowel-jointed plain concrete pavements.

Keywords
Jointed plain concrete pavement, Finite element modelling, Load transfer efficiency, Steel dowel bar
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-342483 (URN)
Note

QC 20240123

Available from: 2024-01-22 Created: 2024-01-22 Last updated: 2024-02-13Bibliographically approved

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