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Criteria for Machinability Evaluation of Compacted Graphite Iron Materials: Design and Production Planning Perspective on Cylinder Block Manufacturing
KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell produktion. (Maskin och processteknologi, Machine and process technology)
2011 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The Swedish truck industry is looking for new material solutions to achieve lighter engines with increased strength to meet customer demands and to fulfil the new regulations for more environmentally friendly trucks. This could be achieved by increasing the peak pressure in the cylinders. Consequently, a more efficient combustion is obtained and the exhaust lowered. This, however, exposes the engine to higher loads and material physical properties must therefore be enhanced. One material that could meet these demands is Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI). Its mechanical and physical properties make it ideal as cylinder block material, though there are drawbacks concerning its machinability as compared to other materials that are commonly used for the same purpose. Knowledge about machining of the material and its machinability is consequently inadequate.

The main goal of this thesis is to identify and investigate the effect of the major factors and their individual contributions on CGI machining process behaviour. When the relationship between the fundamental features; machinability, material microstructure, and material physical properties, are revealed, the CGI material can be optimized, both regarding the manufacturing process and design requirements. The basic understanding of this is developed mainly through experimental analysis as, e.g., machining experiments and material characterization.

The machining model presented in this thesis demonstrates the influence of material and process parameters on CGI machinability. It highlights machinability from both design and production planning perspectives. Another important objective of the thesis is an inverse thermo−mechanical FE model for intermittent machining of CGI. Here, experimental results obtained from a developed simulated milling method are used as input data, both to calibrate and validate the model. With these models, a deeper understanding is obtained regarding the way to achieve a stable process, which is the basis for future optimization procedures. The models can therefore be used as a foundation for the optimization of CGI component manufacturing.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2011. , s. xiii, 75
Serie
TRITA-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 2011-10
Nyckelord [en]
Metal Cutting, Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI), Machinability, Design of Experiments (DoE), Inverse Finite Element (FE) Modelling, Simulated Milling Method
Nationell ämneskategori
Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
Forskningsämne
SRA - Produktion
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-48430ISBN: 978-91-7501-159-2 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-48430DiVA, id: diva2:457571
Disputation
2011-12-02, F3, Lindstedtsväg 26, KTH, Stockholm, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Projekt
MERA - OPTIMA CGIFFI - OPTIMA phase two
Forskningsfinansiär
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Anmärkning

QC 20111121

Tillgänglig från: 2011-11-21 Skapad: 2011-11-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-05-23Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Effect of carbide promoting elements on CGI material processing
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effect of carbide promoting elements on CGI material processing
2010 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the CIRP 2nd International Conference Process Machine Interactions, 2010Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Due to environmental regulations, the industry uses both new and recycled material for the casting of new components. In the heavy truck industry, great effort is put into the purchasing of “good quality” recycled/scrap material to be used for casting CGI (compacted graphite iron) cylinder blocks and cylinder heads. Scrap material with a large concentration of carbide promoting elements reduces the machinability drastically due to carbides. The effect of carbide promoting elements on CGI machinability needs to be investigated in order to produce high quality engine components in an economically satisfactory way. This study presents the effect of the carbide promoting elements of chromium, manganese and molybdenum on CGI material processing. 17 unique CGI materials with different material chemical composition were studied. Material testing, milling experiments and image analysis of microstructure were performed on all materials, mapping the process machine interaction. The results show that all carbide promoting elements, but especially chromium, reduce the tool life in CGI milling. The results also illustrate the interaction between concentration of carbide promoting elements, material strength and machinability.

Nyckelord
Milling, Carbides, Carbide Promoting Elements, Scrap Material, compacted
Nationell ämneskategori
Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
Forskningsämne
SRA - Produktion
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-27734 (URN)978-0-9866331-0-2 (ISBN)
Konferens
CIRP 2nd International Conference on Process Machine Interactions, Vancouver
Forskningsfinansiär
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Anmärkning
QC 20110105Tillgänglig från: 2010-12-21 Skapad: 2010-12-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2011-11-21Bibliografiskt granskad
2. The Effect of Interlamellar Distance in Pearlite on CGI Machining
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The Effect of Interlamellar Distance in Pearlite on CGI Machining
2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: ICME 2009: International Conference on Mechanical Engineering, 2009, s. 33-44Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Swedish truck industry is investigating the possibilityfor implementing the use of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) in theirheavy duty diesel engines. Compared to the alloyed gray iron usedtoday, CGI has superior mechanical properties but not as goodmachinability. Another issue that needs to be addressed whenimplementing CGI is the inhomogeneous microstructure when thecast component has different section thicknesses, as in cylinderblocks. Thinner sections results in finer pearlite, in the material, withhigher strength. Therefore an investigation on its influence onmachinability was needed. This paper focuses on the effect thatinterlamellar distance in pearlite has on CGI machinability andmaterial physical properties. The effect of pearlite content andnodularity is also examined. The results showed that interlamellardistance in pearlite did not have as large effect on the materialphysical properties or machinability as pearlite content. The paperalso shows the difficulties of obtaining a homogeneousmicrostructure in inhomogeneous workpieces.

Serie
PROCEEDINGS OF WORLD ACADEMY OF SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 2070-3740 ; 41
Nyckelord
Compacted graphite iron (CGI), machinability, microstructure, milling, interlamellar distance in pearlite
Nationell ämneskategori
Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
Forskningsämne
SRA - Produktion
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-28205 (URN)
Forskningsfinansiär
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Anmärkning
QC 20110112Tillgänglig från: 2011-01-11 Skapad: 2011-01-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2011-11-21Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Analysis of compacted graphite iron machining by investigation of tool temperature and cutting force
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Analysis of compacted graphite iron machining by investigation of tool temperature and cutting force
2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: 1st International Conference on Process Machine Interactions: Hannover, Germany, 2008Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Serie
Trita-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 08-08
Nyckelord
Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI), cutting temperature, nodularity, FEM, cutting force
Nationell ämneskategori
Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25921 (URN)978-3-939026-95-2 (ISBN)
Anmärkning
QC 20101104Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-04 Skapad: 2010-11-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2011-11-21Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Investigation of the Effect of Microstructures on CGI Machining
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Investigation of the Effect of Microstructures on CGI Machining
2007 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of microstructures on CGI machining and to compare to gray iron reference material. Special designed workpieces, to reproduce real situations, were machined in face milling. The project planning was based on factorial analysis of design of experiments. The results showed that the strongest parameter affecting tool life is the pearlite content. Furthermore it is clear that due to imprecision of manufacturing process it is difficult to obtain test specimens with homogenous microstructures and corresponding varying mechanical properties, when the specimen presents a complex geometrical form. Thin sections found in walls tend to have higher nodularity, resulting in spherical graphite. To refine the investigation of the effect of microstructures on CGI machining it would be preferred to use test specimens without holes or slots to minimise noise in the factor analysis.

Serie
Trita-IIP, ISSN 1650-1888 ; 07-06
Nyckelord
Microstructure, CGI, face milling, machinability, mechanical properties, section effect, cutting forces, tool wear
Nationell ämneskategori
Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-25918 (URN)
Konferens
Swedish Production Symposium, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2007
Anmärkning
QC 20101104Tillgänglig från: 2010-11-04 Skapad: 2010-11-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2011-11-21Bibliografiskt granskad
5. Investigation of tool wear mechanisms in CGI machining
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Investigation of tool wear mechanisms in CGI machining
2011 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems, ISSN 1753-1039, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 3-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the tool wear, including wear mechanisms on coated cemented carbide inserts were investigated in the turning of Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) materials with varying nodularity. The results showed that increasing nodularity, in the range of 5–62%, affects wear at moderate and high cutting speeds without having the same impact at lower cutting speeds. A small difference in nodularity, in the lower range, such as an increase from 5% to 20%, has a more significant impact on wear than an increase from 20% to 62%.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Inderscience publisher, 2011
Nyckelord
CGI machining, compacted graphite iron, turning, tool wear mechanisms, coated cemented carbides, nodularity, cutting speeds
Nationell ämneskategori
Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
Forskningsämne
SRA - Produktion
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-28344 (URN)10.1504/IJMMS.2011.037996 (DOI)2-s2.0-78651277529 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Anmärkning
QC 20110114Tillgänglig från: 2011-01-13 Skapad: 2011-01-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2012-06-19Bibliografiskt granskad

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