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The effect of haptic degrees of freedom on task performance in virtual surgical environments
Stanford University.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8093-5911
Stanford University.
Stanford University.
Stanford University.
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2013 (English)In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 184, 129-135 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Force and touch feedback, or haptics, can play a significant role in the realism of virtual reality surgical simulation. While it is accepted that simulators providing haptic feedback often outperform those that do not, little is known about the degree of haptic fidelity required to achieve simulation objectives. This article evaluates the effect that employing haptic rendering with different degrees of freedom (DOF) has on task performance in a virtual environment. Results show that 6-DOF haptic rendering significantly improves task performance over 3-DOF haptic rendering, even if computed torques are not displayed to the user. No significant difference could be observed between under-actuated (force only) and fully-actuated 6-DOF feedback in two surgically-motivated tasks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOS Press, 2013. Vol. 184, 129-135 p.
Keyword [en]
surgical simulation, haptics, haptic rendering, task performance
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-128604DOI: 10.3233/978-1-61499-209-7-129PubMedID: 23400144Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84879517273OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-128604DiVA: diva2:648374
Note

QC 20130916

Available from: 2013-09-16 Created: 2013-09-16 Last updated: 2016-03-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Reflective Spatial Haptic Interaction Design Approaching a Designerly Understanding of Spatial Haptics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reflective Spatial Haptic Interaction Design Approaching a Designerly Understanding of Spatial Haptics
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With a spatial haptic interface device and a suitable haptic rendering algorithm, users can explore and modify virtual geometries in three dimensions with the aid of their haptic (touch) sense. Designers of surgery simulators, anatomy exploration tools and applications that involve assembly of complex objects should consider employing this technology. However, in order to know how the technology behaves as a design material, the designer needs to become well acquainted with its material properties. This presents a significant challenge today, since the haptic devices are presented as black boxes, and implementation of advanced rendering algorithms represent highly specialized and time consuming development activities. In addition, it is difficult to imagine what an interface will feel like until it has been fully implemented, and important design trade-offs such as the virtual object's size and stability gets neglected.

Traditional user-centered design can be interpreted as that the purpose of the field study phase is to generate a set of specifications for an interface, and only solutions that cover these specifications will be considered in the design phase. The designer might miss opportunities to create solutions that uses e.g. lower cost devices since that might require reinterpretation of the overarching goal of the situation with starting point in the technical possibilities, which is unlikely without significant material knowledge. As an example, a surgery simulator designed in this thesis required a high cost haptic device to render adequate forces on the scale of human teeth, but if the design goal is reinterpreted as creating a tool for learning anatomical differences and surgical steps, an application more suitable for the lower cost haptic devices could be crafted. This solution is as much informed by the haptic material "speaking back to" the designer as by field studies.

This licentiate thesis will approach a perspective of spatial haptic interface design that is grounded in contemporary design theory. These theories emphasizes the role of the designer, who is not seen as an objective actor but as someone who has a desire to transform a situation into a preferred one as a service to a client or greater society. It also emphasizes the need for crafting skills in order to innovate, i.e. make designed objects real. Further, it considers aesthetic aspects of a design, which includes the subtle differences in friction as you move the device handle, and overall attractiveness of the device and system.

The thesis will cover a number of design cases which will be related to design theory and reflected upon. Particular focus will be placed on the most common class of haptic devices which can give force feedback in three dimensions and give input in six (position and orientation). Forces will be computed and objects deformed by an volume sampling algorithm which will be discussed. Important design properties such as stiffness, have been identified and exposed as a material for design. A tool for tuning these properties interactively has been developed to assist designers to become acquainted with the spatial haptic material and to craft the material for a particular user experience.

Looking forward, the thesis suggests the future work of making spatial haptic interfaces more design ready, both in software and hardware. This is proposed to be accomplished through development of toolkits for innovation which encapsulate complexities and exposes design parameters. A particular focus will be placed on enabling crafting with the haptic material whose natural limitations should be seen as suggestions rather than hinders for creating valuable solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. vii, 49 p.
Series
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2013:08
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-128609 (URN)
Presentation
2013-09-26, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 09:10 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20130916

Available from: 2013-09-16 Created: 2013-09-16 Last updated: 2013-09-16Bibliographically approved
2. Preparing Spatial Haptics for Interaction Design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preparing Spatial Haptics for Interaction Design
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Att förbereda 3D-Haptik för interaktionsdesign
Abstract [en]

Spatial haptics is a fascinating technology with which users can explore and modify3D computer graphics objects with the sense of touch, but its application potentialis often misunderstood. For a large group of application designers it is still unknown,and those who are aware of it often have either too high expectations of what is technicallyachievable or believe it is too complicated to consider at all. In addition, spatialhaptics is in its current form ill-suited to interaction design. This is partly because theproperties and use qualities cannot be experienced in an application prototype until asystem is fully implemented, which takes too much effort to be practical in most designsettings. In order to find a good match between a solution and a framing of aproblem, the designer needs to be able to mould/shape/form the technology into a solution,but also to re-frame the problem and question initial conceptual designs as shelearns more about what the technology affords. Both of these activities require a goodunderstanding of the design opportunities of this technology.

In this thesis I present a new way of working with spatial haptic interaction design.Studying the serially linked mechanism from a well-known haptic device, and a forcereflectingcarving algorithm in particular, I show how to turn these technologies froman esoteric engineering form into a form ready for interaction design. The work isgrounded in a real application: an oral surgery simulator named Kobra that has beendeveloped over the course of seven years within our research group. Its design hasgone through an evolutionary process with iterative design and hundreds of encounterswith the audience; surgeon-teachers as users and potential customers. Some ideas, e.g.gestalting authentic patient cases, have as a result received increased attention by thedesign team, while other ideas, e.g. automatic assessment, have faded away.

Simulation is an idea that leads to ideals of realism; that e.g. simulated instrumentsshould behave as in reality, e.g. a simulated dental instrument for prying teeth is expectedto behave according to the laws of physics and give force and torque feedback.If it does not, it is a bad simulation. In the present work it is shown how some of therealism ideal is unnecessary for creating meaningful learning applications and can actuallyeven be counter-productive, since it may limit the exploration of creative designsolutions. This result is a shift in perspective from working towards constantly improvingtechnological components, to finding and making use of the qualities of modern,but not necessarily absolute cutting-edge, haptic technology.

To be able to work creatively with a haptic system as a design resource we needto learn its material qualities and how - through changing essential properties - meaningfulexperiential qualities can be modulated and tuned. This requires novel tools andworkflows that enable designers to explore the creative design space, create interactionsketches and tune the design to cater for the user experience. In essence, this thesisshows how one instance of spatial haptics can be turned from an esoteric technologyinto a design material, and how that can be used, and formed, with novel tools throughthe interaction design of a purposeful product in the domain of dental education.

Abstract [sv]

3D-haptik är en fascinerande teknologi med vilken användare kan utforska ochmodifiera tredimensionella datorgrafik-objekt med känseln, men dess användningspotentialär ofta missförstådd. För flertalet applikationsutvecklare är tekniken fortfarandetill stor del okänd, och de som känner till den har antingen alltför höga förväntingarav vad som är tekniskt möjligt, eller uppfattar 3D-haptik som alltför komplicerat föratt vara ett gångbart alternativ. Dessutom är 3D-haptik i sin nuvarande form tämligenomoget för interaktionsdesign. Detta beror till stor del på att en applikationsprototypsegenskaper och användarkvaliteter inte kan upplevas innan ett system är implementerati sin helhet, vilket kräver alltför stora utvecklingsresurser för att vara praktisktförsvarbart i de flesta designsituationer. För att uppnå en bra matchning mellan ett användarbehovi en viss situation och en potentiell lösning behöver en designer kunna åena sidan formge och finjustera tekniken, och å andra sidan vara öppen för att ifrågasättaoch ändra problemformulering och konceptdesign när hen lär sig mer om vilkamöjligheter tekniken erbjuder. Båda dessa aktiviteter kräver en god förståelse för vilkadesignmöjligheter som en viss teknik, eller material, erbjuder.

I den här avhandlingen presenterar jag ett nytt sätt att arbeta med interaktionsdesignför 3D-haptik. Genom att studera i synnerhet den seriellt länkade mekanismen somåterfinns i en vanligt förekommande typ av 3D-haptikenhet, och en kraftåterkopplandeskärande/borrande algoritm visar jag hur man kan omvandla dessa teknologier från attvara en svårtillgänglig ingengörskonst till en form som är mer redo för interaktionsdesign.Denna förberedelse resulterar i ett slags designmaterial, samt de verktyg ochprocesser som har visat sig nödvändiga för att effektivt kunna arbeta med materialet.Forskningen är grundad i en verklig tillämpning: en simulator för käkkirurgi vidnamn Kobra, som har utvecklas under sju år inom vår forskargrupp. Kobras utformninghar genomgått en evolutionär utvecklingsprocess med iterativ design och hundratalsmöten med målgruppen; lärarpraktiserande käkkirurger och studenter som användareoch potentiella kunder. Därvid har några designidéer, t.ex. gestaltning av patientfall, avdesignteamet fått utökad uppmärksamhet medan andra idéer, t.ex. automatisk gradering,har tonats ned.

Simulering är i sig självt en idé som ofta leder till ett ideal av realism; till exempelatt simulerade instrument ska uppföra sig som i verkligheten, det vill säga ett simulerattandläkarinstrument för att hävla (bända) tänder förväntas följa fysikens lagar och geåterkoppling i form av av både kraft och vridmoment. Om detta inte uppfylls betraktassimuleringen som undermålig. I det aktuella arbetet visas hur delar av realism-idealetinte är nödvändigt för att skapa meningsfulla lärandeapplikationer, och att det till ochmed kan vara kontraproduktivt eftersom det begränsar utforskande av kreativa designlösningar.Ifrågasättandet av realsimidealet resulterar i ett perspektivskifte vad gällersimulatorutveckling generellt, från att ensidigt fokusera på vidareutveckling av enskildatekniska komponenter, till att identifiera och dra nytta av kvaliteterna som redanerbjuds i modern haptisk teknik.

För att kunna arbeta kreativt med ett haptiksystem som en designresurs behöver vilära känna dess materialkvaliteter och hur, genom att ändra grundläggande parametrar,meningsfulla upplevelsekvaliteter kan moduleras och finjusteras. Detta kräver i sin turnyskapande av verktyg och arbetsflöden som möjliggör utforskande av det kreativadesignrummet, skapande av interaktionssketcher och finjustering av gestaltningen föratt tillgodose användarupplevelsen.

I grund och botten visar denna avhandling hur en specifik 3D-haptik-teknologi kanomvandlas från att vara en svårtillgänglig teknologi till att vara ett designmaterial, ochhur det kan användas, och formas, med nyskapande verktyg genom interaktionsdesignav en nyttoprodukt inom tandläkarutbildning

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. xiii, 81 p.
Series
TRITA-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2016:06
Keyword
haptics, interaction design, surgery simulation, haptik, interaktionsdesign, medicinsk simulering, kirurgi
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-183373 (URN)978-91-7595-882-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-06, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 2, KTH, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20160309

Available from: 2016-03-09 Created: 2016-03-08 Last updated: 2016-03-09Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
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  • de-DE
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  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
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  • text
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