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Removal of total organic carbon from sewage wastewater using poly(ethylenimine)-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles
KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Industriell bioteknologi.
Centro de Investigacion en Materials Avanzados (CIMAV) S.C., Mexico.
Centro de Investigacion en Materials Avanzados (CIMAV) S.C., Mexico.
KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Experimentell biomolekylär fysik. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-1850-5440
Visa övriga samt affilieringar
2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 1036-1044Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The increased levels of organic carbon in sewage wastewater during recent years impose a great challenge to the existing wastewater treatment process (WWTP). Technological innovations are therefore sought that can reduce the release of organic carbon into lakes and seas. In the present study, magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized, functionalized with poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), and characterized using TEM (transmission electron microscopy), X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), CCS (confocal correlation spectroscopy), SICS (scattering interference correlation spectroscopy), magnetism studies, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The removal of total organic carbon (TOC) and other contaminants using PEI-coated magnetic nanoparticles (PEI-NPs) was tested in wastewater obtained from the Hammarby Sjöstadsverk sewage plant, Sweden. The synthesized NPs were about 12 nm in diameter and showed a homogeneous particle size distribution in dispersion by TEM and CCS analyses, respectively. The magnetization curve reveals superparamagnetic behavior, and the NPs do not reach saturation because of surface anisotropy effects. A 50% reduction in TOC was obtained in 60 min when using 20 mg/L PEI-NPs in 0.5 L of wastewater. Along with TOC, other contaminants such as turbidity (89%), color (86%), total nitrogen (24%), and microbial content (90%) were also removed without significant changes in the mineral ion composition of wastewater. We conclude that the application of PEI-NPs has the potential to reduce the processing time, complexity, sludge production, and use of additional chemicals in the WWTP.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2014. Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 1036-1044
Nyckelord [en]
Correlation spectroscopy, Magnetic nano-particles, Magnetization curves, Superparamagnetic behavior, Technological innovation, TEM (transmission electron microscopy), Total Organic Carbon, Wastewater treatment process
Nationell ämneskategori
Vattenbehandling Nanoteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134305DOI: 10.1021/la404076nISI: 000331015600010Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84893621759OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-134305DiVA, id: diva2:665757
Forskningsfinansiär
Science for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscience
Anmärkning

QC 20140313. Updated from manuscript to article in journal.

Tillgänglig från: 2013-11-20 Skapad: 2013-11-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-06Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Application of magnetic nanoparticles and reactive filter materials for wastewater treatment
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Application of magnetic nanoparticles and reactive filter materials for wastewater treatment
2013 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Lately sewage wastewater treatment processes (WWTP) are facing challenges due to strict regulations in quality of effluent standards and waste production. The reuse of wastewater treatment effluents is rapidly gaining attention as a means of achieving sustainable water supply. Therefore, new methods are required to achieve an efficient WWTP. The foremost emphasis of the present study is to investigate filter materials, synthesis, characterization, and application of magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) for WWTP. Primarily commercially available reactive filter materials such as Polonite and Sorbulite were tested for the effective reduction of contaminants in recirculation batch mode system. Secondly, the magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized using different techniques such as water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion and co- precipitation methods and testing for their ability to remove contaminants from wastewater. Thirdly, toxicity test of magnetic NPs were performed using human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and endothelial (HMEC-1) cells (Papers I-VII).

The magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION) synthesized using the co-precipitation method were further functionalized with tri-sodium citrate (TSC), 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (APTES), polyethylenimine (PEI) and chitosan. The functionalized MION were further characterized prior to use in removal of contaminants from wastewater. The sewage wastewater samples were collected from Hammarby Sjöstadsverk, Sweden and analyses were performed for the reduction of turbidity, color, total nitrogen, total organic carbon, phosphate and microbial content on the retrieval day.

The experimental results imply that Polonite and Sorbulite require high pH for the efficient reduction of phosphate and the reduction of microbes. Microemulsion prepared magnetic nanoparticles (ME-MION) showed ≈100% removal of phosphate in 20 minutes. Results from TEM implied that the size of magnetic Nps were around 8 nm for core (uncoated MION), TSC (11.5 nm), APTES (20 nm), PEI (11.8 nm) and chitosan (15 nm). Optimization studies using central composite face centered (CCF) design showed the potential of magnetic nanoparticles for the removal of turbidity (≈83%) and total nitrogen (≈33%) in 60 minutes. The sludge water content was reduced significantly by ≈87% when magnetic NPs were used whilst compared to the chemical precipitant used in WWTP. PEI coated MION showed ≈50% removal of total organic carbon from wastewater in 60 minutes. Effluents from wastewater treated with magnetic NPs were comparable with effluent from the present WWTP. There was no significant change observed in mineral ion concentration before and after treatment with MION. In addition, toxicity results from HMEC-1 and HaCaT cells revealed no formation of reactive oxygen species in the presence of magnetic NPs. Furthermore, laboratory experiments revealed the effectiveness and reusability of magnetic NPs. Thus magnetic NPs are a potential wastewater treatment agent and can be used for effective removal of contaminants, thereby reducing the process time, sludge water content and complex process steps involved in conventional WWTP.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2013. s. ix, 63
Serie
TRITA-BIO-Report, ISSN 1654-2312 ; 2013:20
Nyckelord
Reactive filter materials, magnetic nanoparticles, wastewater treatment process, nutrient reduction, sludge water content, toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles
Nationell ämneskategori
Vattenbehandling Teknik och teknologier Nanoteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-134236 (URN)978-91-7501-948-2 (ISBN)
Disputation
2013-12-12, FB54, Albanova Universitet Centrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 09:30 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Anmärkning

QC 20131121

Tillgänglig från: 2013-11-21 Skapad: 2013-11-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2014-03-13Bibliografiskt granskad

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Wennmalm, Stefan

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Lakshmanan, RamnathWennmalm, StefanKuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
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Industriell bioteknologiExperimentell biomolekylär fysikScience for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab
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Langmuir
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