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Robust Scheduling of Smart Appliances in Active Apartments With User Behavior Uncertainty
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4210-8672
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8633-1641
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1835-2963
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9940-5929
2015 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, ISSN 1545-5955, E-ISSN 1558-3783, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 247-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we propose a robust approach for scheduling of smart appliances and electrical energy storages (EESs) in active apartments with the aim of reducing both the electricity bill and the CO2 emissions. The proposed robust formulation takes the user behavior uncertainty into account so that the optimal appliances schedule is less sensitive to unpredictable changes in user preferences. The user behavior uncertainty is modeled as uncertainty in the cost function coefficients. In order to reduce the level of conservativeness of the robust solution, we introduce a parameter allowing to achieve a trade-off between the price of robustness and the protection against uncertainty. Mathematically, the robust scheduling problem is posed as a multi-objective Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP), which is solved by using standard algorithms. The numerical results show effectiveness of the proposed approach to increase both the electricity bill and CO2 emissions savings, in the presence of user behavior uncertainties. Mathematical insights into the robust formulation are illustrated and the sensitivity of the optimum cost in the presence of uncertainties is investigated. Although home appliances and EESs are considered in this work, we point out that the proposed scheduling framework is generally applicable to many use cases, e.g., charging and discharging of electrical vehicles in an effective way. In addition, it is applicable to various scenarios considering different uncertainty sources, different storage technologies and generic programmable electrical loads, as well as different optimization criteria.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE Press, 2015. Vol. 13, no 1, p. 247-259
Keywords [en]
Demand response, mixed-integer linear programming, multi-objective robust optimization, robust scheduling of smart appliances, user behavior uncertainty
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182340DOI: 10.1109/TASE.2015.2497300ISI: 000374443300025Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85034965186OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-182340DiVA, id: diva2:904282
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyKnut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationVINNOVA
Note

QC 20160226

Available from: 2016-02-18 Created: 2016-02-18 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Hierarchical energy management in smart grids: Flexibility prediction, scheduling and resilient control
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hierarchical energy management in smart grids: Flexibility prediction, scheduling and resilient control
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The electric power industry and society are facing challenges and opportunitiesof transforming the present power grid into a smart grid. Energymanagement systems (EMSs) play an important role in smart grids. A generalhierarchical structure for EMSs is considered here, which is composed ofa lower layer and an upper layer.

The first research objective of the thesis is detailed modeling, schedulingand control of flexible loads at the lower layer of EMSs. To do this, a wellstudiedframework has been extended, which focuses on scheduling of staticloads and dynamic loads for home energy management systems (HEMSs).Then, a robust formulation of the framework is proposed, which takes theuser behavior uncertainty into account so that the cost of optimal schedulingof appliances is less sensitive to unpredictable changes in user preferences.Considering that the optimization algorithms in the proposed framework canbe computationally intensive, an efficient plug-and-play policy is proposedand validated through several simulation studies.

The second research objective is to predict, plan, and control the aggregatedflexible load at the upper layer. Here, an iterative distributed approachamong aggregator and HEMSs is designed, to maximize the aggregated profitmade out of the shared energy storage system, while technical and operationalconstraints are satisfied. In addition, a strategy is proposed for flexibilityprediction of aggregated heterogeneous thermostatically controlled loads ina single micro-community of households. Then, algorithms are designed forplanning and control of aggregated flexibility in several micro-communities,to be used for bidding in energy and reserve markets.

To meet these research objectives, the control systems in the hierarchicalEMSs are connected over IT infrastructures and are in interaction with endusers.While this is done to achieve economical and environmental goals,it also introduces new sources of uncertainty in the control loops. Thus,the third research objective is to design policies to make the EMSs resilientagainst uncertainties and cyber attacks. Here, the user behavior uncertaintyhas been modeled, and a robust formulation is designed so that the optimalsolution for scheduling of appliances is more resilient to the uncertainties. Inaddition, fault-tolerant control techniques have been applied to a hierarchicalEMS to mitigate cyber-physical attacks, with no need for major re-designof the local control loops in already existing EMSs. Moreover, stability andoptimal performance of the proposed attack-resilient control policy have been proven.

Abstract [sv]

I samband med den pågående omvandlingen av nuvarande elsystem tillsmarta elnät finns både utmaningar och möjligheter för elkraftindustrin. Såkallade energihanteringssystem (EMS) spelar en viktig roll i smarta elnät. Härbehandlas en generell hierarkisk struktur för EMS, bestående av två lager, ettlägre och ett övre lager.

Det främsta målet i avhandlingen är detaljerad modellering, schemaläggningoch styrning av flexibla laster i det lägre lagret av EMS. Ett tidigarestuderat ramverk som fokuserar på schemaläggning av statiska och dynamiskalaster för hushållens energihanteringssystem (HEMS) har därför vidareutvecklats.Vidare föreslås en robust formulering av ramverket som tarhänsyn till användarens beteendeosäkerhet så att kostnaden för optimal schemaläggningav apparater blir mindre känslig för oförutsägbara förändringar ianvändarpreferenser. Eftersom att optimeringsalgoritmerna kan vara beräkningsintensivaföreslås och valideras en effektiv plug-and-play-metod genomflera simuleringsstudier.

Ett annat syfte har varit att förutsäga, planera och styra den aggregeradeflexibla lasten i det övre lagret i EMS. Därför har ett iterativt distribuerattillvägagångssätt för aggregat och HEMS utformats för att maximera vinstenfrån det delade energilagringssystemet, samtidigt som tekniska och operativabegränsningar uppfylls. Dessutom föreslås en strategi för att förutsägaflexibiliteten hos aggregerade heterogena termostatstyrda belastningar i ettmikrosamhälle bestående av flera hushåll. Vidare utformas algoritmer för planeringoch kontroll av aggregerad flexibilitet i flera mikrosamhällen, som kananvändas för att delta på energi- och reservmarknader.

För att möta dessa forskningsmål kopplas styrsystemen i de hierarkiskaEMS-systemen ihop över IT-infrastruktur och samverkar med slutanvändare. Detta görs för att uppnå ekonomiska och miljömässiga mål, men kan ocksåskapa nya källor till osäkerhet i kontrollslingorna. Det tredje forskningsmåletär således att utforma metoder för att göra EMS motståndskraftiga motosäkerheter och cyberattacker. Här har osäkerheter i användarbeteenden modelleratsoch en robust formulering utformats för att göra schemaläggningav apparater mer motståndskraftig mot osäkerhet. Dessutom har feltolerantakontrolltekniker applicerats på en hierarkisk EMS för att mildra cyber-fysiskaattacker, utan att det behövs någon större förändring av de lokala kontrollslingornai redan befintliga EMS. Vidare har stabilitet och optimal prestandaför den föreslagna attackmotståndskraftiga kontrolltekniken bevisats.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019. p. 55
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2019:20
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Energy Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-244843 (URN)978-91-7873-123-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-03-22, K1, Teknikringen 56, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20190301

Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2022-06-26Bibliographically approved

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Paridari, KavehParisio, AlessandraSandberg, HenrikJohansson, Karl Henrik

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