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Influence of lips on the production of vowels based on finite element simulations and experiments
GTM–Grup de recerca en Tecnologies Mèdia, La Salle, Universitat Ramon Llull, C/Quatre Camins 30, Barcelona, E-08022, Catalonia, Spain.
GIPSA-Lab, Unité Mixte de Recherche au Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 5216, Grenoble Campus, St. Martin d'Heres, F-38402, France.
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8991-1016
GTM–Grup de recerca en Tecnologies Mèdia, La Salle, Universitat Ramon Llull, C/Quatre Camins 30, Barcelona, E-08022, Catalonia, Spain.
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2016 (English)In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 139, no 5, p. 2852-2859Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

Three-dimensional (3-D) numerical approaches for voice production are currently being investigated and developed. Radiation losses produced when sound waves emanate from the mouth aperture are one of the key aspects to be modeled. When doing so, the lips are usually removed from the vocal tract geometry in order to impose a radiation impedance on a closed cross-section, which speeds up the numerical simulations compared to free-field radiation solutions. However, lips may play a significant role. In this work, the lips' effects on vowel sounds are investigated by using 3-D vocal tract geometries generated from magnetic resonance imaging. To this aim, two configurations for the vocal tract exit are considered: with lips and without lips. The acoustic behavior of each is analyzed and compared by means of time-domain finite element simulations that allow free-field wave propagation and experiments performed using 3-D-printed mechanical replicas. The results show that the lips should be included in order to correctly model vocal tract acoustics not only at high frequencies, as commonly accepted, but also in the low frequency range below 4 kHz, where plane wave propagation occurs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Acoustical Society of America (ASA), 2016. Vol. 139, no 5, p. 2852-2859
National Category
Language Technology (Computational Linguistics)
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-189323DOI: 10.1121/1.4950698ISI: 000377715100066PubMedID: 27250177Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84971216381OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-189323DiVA, id: diva2:945652
Projects
EUNISON
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 6877
Note

QC 20160704

Available from: 2016-07-02 Created: 2016-07-02 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Computational Modeling of the Vocal Tract: Applications to Speech Production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computational Modeling of the Vocal Tract: Applications to Speech Production
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Human speech production is a complex process, involving neuromuscular control signals, the effects of articulators' biomechanical properties and acoustic wave propagation in a vocal tract tube of intricate shape. Modeling these phenomena may play an important role in advancing our understanding of the involved mechanisms, and may also have future medical applications, e.g., guiding doctors in diagnosing, treatment planning, and surgery prediction of related disorders, ranging from oral cancer, cleft palate, obstructive sleep apnea, dysphagia, etc.

A more complete understanding requires models that are as truthful representations as possible of the phenomena. Due to the complexity of such modeling, simplifications have nevertheless been used extensively in speech production research: phonetic descriptors (such as the position and degree of the most constricted part of the vocal tract) are used as control signals, the articulators are represented as two-dimensional geometrical models, the vocal tract is considered as a smooth tube and plane wave propagation is assumed, etc.

This thesis aims at firstly investigating the consequences of such simplifications, and secondly at contributing to establishing unified modeling of the speech production process, by connecting three-dimensional biomechanical modeling of the upper airway with three-dimensional acoustic simulations. The investigation on simplifying assumptions demonstrated the influence of vocal tract geometry features — such as shape representation, bending and lip shape — on its acoustic characteristics, and that the type of modeling — geometrical or biomechanical — affects the spatial trajectories of the articulators, as well as the transition of formant frequencies in the spectrogram.

The unification of biomechanical and acoustic modeling in three-dimensions allows to realistically control the acoustic output of dynamic sounds, such as vowel-vowel utterances, by contraction of relevant muscles. This moves and shapes the speech articulators that in turn dene the vocal tract tube in which the wave propagation occurs. The main contribution of the thesis in this line of work is a novel and complex method that automatically reconstructs the shape of the vocal tract from the biomechanical model. This step is essential to link biomechanical and acoustic simulations, since the vocal tract, which anatomically is a cavity enclosed by different structures, is only implicitly defined in a biomechanical model constituted of several distinct articulators.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 105
Series
TRITA-EECS-AVL ; 2018:90
Keywords
vocal tract, upper airway, speech production, biomechanical model, acoustic model, vocal tract reconstruction
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Speech and Music Communication
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-239071 (URN)978-91-7873-021-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-12-07, D2, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
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Note

QC 20181116

Available from: 2018-11-16 Created: 2018-11-16 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved

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Dabbaghchian, Saeed

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