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Modelling solid solution hardening in stainless steels
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8494-3983
2006 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, Vol. 415, no 1-2, 66-71 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The solid solution hardening of stainless steels is studied by using the Labusch-Nabarro relation. Models are evaluated in order to predict the mechanical properties from chemical composition, solution hardening misfit parameters, grain size, ferrite content and product thickness. A data source of six grades of steels is used for the modelling. Both austenitic and duplex stainless steels are covered including more than 1100 batches, which are subjected to multiple regression analyses. The models are compared with earlier studies and can be used as tools in material optimisation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 415, no 1-2, 66-71 p.
Keyword [en]
stainless steel, material optimisation, solution hardening, mechanical properties, multiple regression
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5737DOI: 10.1016/j.msea.2005.09.031ISI: 000234270400009Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-29244466485OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-5737DiVA: diva2:10203
Note
QC 20100920Available from: 2006-05-15 Created: 2006-05-15 Last updated: 2011-08-17Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Fracture toughness properties of duplex stainless steels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fracture toughness properties of duplex stainless steels
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Good toughness properties in base and weld material enable the use of duplex stainless steels (DSS) in critical applications. DSS offer high strength compared to common austenitic stainless steels. The high strength can be utilized to reduce the wall thickness and accordingly accomplish reduction of cost, welding time and transportation weight, contributing to ecological and energy savings. Although DSS have been used successfully in many applications the last decades, the full utilisation in pressure vessels has been restricted due to conservative design rules. The consequences of failure in a pressure vessel are often very severe and it is accordingly important to verify a high ductility and fracture toughness.

In this study fracture toughness data has been generated that has been used to analyse the brittle failure model in the European pressure vessel code EN 13445. The evaluation of the results has been made successfully by the master curve analysis, previously applied to ferritic steels. The master curve analysis includes calculation of a reference temperature, which can be correlated to an impact toughness transition temperature. A correlation between fracture and impact toughness results is necessary for a practically applicable design code. The heat distribution and austenite reformation have been modelled to verify satisfactory toughness properties in the heat affected zone. A similar model was used to evaluate the nucleation and diffusional growth of sigma phase during isothermal heat treatment or continuous cooling.

For future stainless steel development, the availability of satisfactory correlations between composition, microstructure and mechanical properties are essential to optimize alloy design. Stainless steel data has been analysed to find approximate relations between mechanical properties and the chemical composition, grain size, ferrite content, product thickness and solution hardening size misfit parameter. The solution hardening effect was successfully predicted by the Labusch-Nabarro relation and multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate hardening equations for stainless steel.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2006. 46 p.
Keyword
duplex stainless steel, fracture toughness, austenite reformation, sigma phase, material optimisation
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-3964 (URN)91-7178-354-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-05-24, F3, Lindstedtsv. 26, KTH, 13:30
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100920Available from: 2006-05-15 Created: 2006-05-15 Last updated: 2010-09-20Bibliographically approved
2. Modelling mechanical properties by analysing datasets of commercial alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling mechanical properties by analysing datasets of commercial alloys
2007 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Commercial alloys are continuously developed to improve their performance. Therefore it is important to develop new optimisation software, which could be used in development of new materials or in materials selection. In this study the mechanical properties which are important in materials selection in mechanical design are investigated. Two types of materials are analysed, aluminium alloys and stainless steels but focus will be on the aluminium alloys.

Thermodynamic analysis has been used to evaluate the effect of the microstructure. Solid solution hardening has been successfully modelled for both aluminium alloys and stainless steels and follows the theories by Labusch and Nabarro. The precipitation hardening is most dominant for the hardenable aluminium alloys, but the non-hardenable alloys also increase their strength from precipitation hardening. The non-hardenable alloys are divided into tempers, which differ in the amount of strain hardening. This has also been modelled successfully.

Combining these fundamental results with multiple regression, models for mechanical properties have been created. Separate models are developed for wrought aluminium alloys and stainless steels. For the aluminium alloys this includes the solid solution hardening and the precipitation hardening. For the stainless steels the thickness, nitrogen content and ferrite content are included together with the solid solution hardening.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2007. 48 p.
Keyword
Aluminium alloys, modelling, material optimisation, mechanical properties, solid solution hardening, precipitation hardening, work-hardening, multiple regression, stainless steel
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4527 (URN)978-91-7178-803-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2007-11-30, Konferensrummet 4tr, Materialvetenskap, KTH, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 10:30
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101122Available from: 2007-11-12 Created: 2007-11-12 Last updated: 2010-11-22Bibliographically approved
3. Development of tools for integrated optimisation and use of aluminium alloys
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of tools for integrated optimisation and use of aluminium alloys
2011 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Commercial alloys are continuously developed to improve their performance. Therefore it is useful to establish new optimisation software, which could be used in development of new materials or in materials selection. In the first part of the thesis, mechanical and technological properties, which are of importance in materials selection in mechanical design, are investigated. Two types of materials are analysed for the mechanical properties, aluminium alloys and stainless steels but only aluminium alloys for the technological properties.

Thermodynamic analysis has been used to evaluate the effect of the microstructure. Solid solution hardening has been successfully modelled for both aluminium alloys and stainless steels following the theories by Labusch and Nabarro. The precipitation hardening is most dominant for the hardenable aluminium alloys, but the non-hardenable alloys also increase their strength from precipitation hardening. The non-hardenable alloys are divided into different tempers, which differ in the amount of strain hardening. This has also been modelled successfully.

Combining these fundamental results with multiple regressions, models for mechanical and technological properties have been created. Separate models are developed for wrought aluminium alloys and stainless steels. For the aluminium alloys these include the solid solution hardening and the precipitation hardening. For the stainless steels, the thickness, nitrogen content and ferrite content are included together with the solid solution hardening.

The second part of the thesis concerns materials selection and materials optimisation. Traditionally materials optimisation includes a preliminary sifting due to the vast number of engineering materials. Then there is a discriminating search followed by an optimisation. In the optimisation part the concept merit indices could be used to rank the materials. A merit index only includes material properties, as for example the characteristic strength, the density or the Young’s modulus. A concept related to the merit indices are the merit exponents, which can be used when no explicit functions for the merit indices are available. The merit exponents can also be used when creating a control area diagram (CAD). These diagrams are used as a design tool, where both the geometry and materials are taken into account. For a situation with several geometrical variables the merit exponents can give information of how much the target function will be influenced by a given property change. This technique can be used for a variety of situations, when there is more than one property limiting the final sizes of a component. Principles for setting up a CAD are given together with how the merit indices and exponents relate to the final CAD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. vii, 9-61 p.
Keyword
Aluminium alloys, Modelling, Materials optimisation, Mechanical properties
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-37609 (URN)978-91-7501-068-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2011-09-09, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20110817Available from: 2011-08-17 Created: 2011-08-15 Last updated: 2011-08-17Bibliographically approved

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Sandström, Rolf

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