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On the influence of surface roughness on rolling contact forces
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. (MWL Structural Dynamics)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2683-1553
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Road vehicle tyres, railway wheels and ball bearings all generate rolling contact forces which are transferred within a finite area of contact between the rolling element and the substrate. Either it is visible or not for the human eye, a certain degree of roughness is always present on the contacting surfaces and it influences the generation of both vertical and lateral contactforces. The purpose of this investigation is to enhance the understanding and modelling of the influence from small-scale surface roughness on the generation of rolling contact forces. To this end, a computationally efficient method to include roughness-induced contact nonlinearities in the dynamic modelling of rolling contacts is proposed. The method is implemented in a time domain model for vertical wheel–track interaction to model rolling-induced rail vibrations, showing good agreement with measurements. Furthermore, a test rig is developed and used for the investigation of tyre–road rolling contact forces. Detailed studies are performed on the influence of substrate roughness on the resulting contact forces for a tyre tread block which is rolling at different operating conditions. The choice of substrate as well as the rolling velocity and the slip ratio is observed to have significant influence on the resulting friction coefficient. For high slip ratios, stick–slip oscillations appear, exhibiting frequency content which is largely dependent on the choice of substrate. The outcomes of this study can potentially be used to improve future tyre–road contacts with respect to wear, traction and noise generation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , 36 p.
Series
TRITA-AVE, ISSN 1651-7660 ; 2016:75
Keyword [en]
Rolling contact, Surface roughness, Contact forces, Contact modelling, Friction, Road, Asphalt, Substrate, Test-rig, Sliding, Stick–slip, Tyre, Rubber, Tread-block, Wheel–rail interaction
National Category
Engineering and Technology Mechanical Engineering Vehicle Engineering Tribology Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193935ISBN: 978-91-7729-145-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-193935DiVA: diva2:1034704
Public defence
2016-11-07, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
Centre for Eco2 Vehicle Design
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20161013

Available from: 2016-10-13 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2016-10-13Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A nonlinear state-dependent model for vibrations excited by roughness in rolling contacts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A nonlinear state-dependent model for vibrations excited by roughness in rolling contacts
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 345, no 9, 197-213 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A state-dependent method to model contact nonlinearities in rolling contacts is proposed. By pre-calculation of contact stiffness and contact filters as functions of vertical relative displacement, a computationally efficient modelling approach based on a moving point force description is developed. Simulations using the state-dependent model have been analysed by comparison with measurements. Results from the investigated case consisting of a steel ball rolling over a steel beam having two different degrees of roughness - show good agreement between nonlinear simulations and measured beam vibrations. The promising results obtained with the proposed method are potentially applicable to wheel rail interaction and rolling element bearings.

National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-155193 (URN)10.1016/j.jsv.2015.02.010 (DOI)000350998800013 ()2-s2.0-84924514876 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20150507. Updated from submitted to published.

Available from: 2014-11-03 Created: 2014-11-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
2. The influence of surface roughness on the contact stiffness and the contact filter effect in nonlinear wheel-track interaction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of surface roughness on the contact stiffness and the contact filter effect in nonlinear wheel-track interaction
2016 (English)In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 366, 429-446 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A state-dependent contact model including nonlinear contact stiffness and nonlinear contact filtering is used to calculate contact forces and rail vibrations with a time-domain wheel-track interaction model. In the proposed method, the full three-dimensional contact geometry is reduced to a point contact in order to lower the computational cost and to reduce the amount of required input roughness-data. Green's functions including the linear dynamics of the wheel and the track are coupled with a point contact model, leading to a numerically efficient model for the wheel-track interaction. Nonlinear effects due to the shape and roughness of the wheel and the rail surfaces are included in the point contact model by pre-calculation of functions for the contact stiffness and contact filters. Numerical results are compared to field measurements of rail vibrations for passenger trains running at 200 kph on a ballast track. Moreover, the influence of vehicle pre-load and different degrees of roughness excitation on the resulting wheel-track interaction is studied by means of numerical predictions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2016
Keyword
Wheel-rail contact, Rolling noise excitation, Roughness, Surface topography, Contact filter effect, Contact stiffness
National Category
Vehicle Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-182140 (URN)10.1016/j.jsv.2015.12.026 (DOI)000368560800023 ()2-s2.0-84957430254 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20160220

Available from: 2016-02-20 Created: 2016-02-16 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
3. A compact internal drum test rig for measurements of rolling contact forces between a single treadblock and a substrate
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A compact internal drum test rig for measurements of rolling contact forces between a single treadblock and a substrate
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A novel test rig design is presented which enables detailed studies of the three force components generated in the impact and release phase of rolling contact between a tyre tread block and a substrate. The design of the compact internal drum test rig provides realistic impact and release angles for the tread block-substrate contact and enables force measurements at high rolling speeds with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Measurements of the rolling contact forces are presented for different values of rolling velocity, static pre-load and acceleration. It is demonstrated that this test rig provides results which contribute to the understanding of tyre--road interaction and can be used as input to modelling-based development of both tyres and roads aiming for improved handling, safety, energy efficiency and comfort.

Keyword
Tread block; Road; Contact forces; Rubber friction; Rolling contact; Test rig
National Category
Engineering and Technology Vehicle Engineering Tribology Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193930 (URN)
Projects
Centre for Eco2 Vehicle Design
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20161014

Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2016-10-14Bibliographically approved
4. Friction of a rubber tread block in rolling and sliding contact with asphalt---An experimental study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Friction of a rubber tread block in rolling and sliding contact with asphalt---An experimental study
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The longitudinal and vertical contact force history of an individual truck tyre tread block in rolling contact with an asphalt surface is experimentally investigated. Different rolling velocities up to approximately 60 km/h and different amount of slip ratios are studied with the use of a novel compact internal drum test rig, leading to results with high signal-to-noise ratio. Interestingly, the longitudinal rolling contact force component and the corresponding friction coefficient exhibit substantial variations not only between the different operating conditions, but also along the contact length of individual impacts. In addition, separate investigatory characterisations for the dynamic elastic deformation of the rubber and for the sliding friction of the rubber\textendash asphalt contact are found to be useful; they provide approximate input values for an initial, promising attempt to separate the contribution from elastic deformation and that from sliding friction. Conclusively, valuable insights are gained which has the potential to further reduce the gap between physically based modelling of friction and empirically based knowledge, which are commonly used in vehicle and tyre industry.

Keyword
Friction; Asphalt; Rolling; Sliding; Stick-slip; Tyre--road; Contact forces; Tread block; Test rig
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Tribology Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193931 (URN)
Projects
Centre for Eco2 Vehicle Design
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20161013

Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2016-10-13Bibliographically approved
5. An experimental study on the influence of substrate roughness on the friction of a tread block in rolling and sliding contact
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An experimental study on the influence of substrate roughness on the friction of a tread block in rolling and sliding contact
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

An experimental study of the friction coefficient is performed for a tyre tread block in rolling and sliding contact with two different asphalt substrates, a smooth aluminium and an anti-slip tape substrate. The sliding friction coefficient is for all substrates seen to increase as the sliding velocity is increasing. However, the slope for the increasing friction as a function of sliding velocity differs significantly between the substrates, presumably due to differences in the respective contribution from adhesive and hysteresis friction mechanisms. Parametric studies of the rolling friction show that the choice of substrate as well as the rolling velocity and the slip ratio has significant influence on the resulting friction coefficient. A linear relation is observed between the longitudinal rolling friction coefficient measured at low values of slip ratio and the sliding friction coefficient measured at low sliding velocities. For the tests of rolling friction at higher values of slip, stick\textendash slip conditions are observed for which the frequency content of the longitudinal force is seen to vary substantially between the different operating conditions and choice of substrate. The outcomes of this study can potentially be used to improve future tyre\textendash road contacts with respect to wear, traction and noise generation.

Keyword
-
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Tribology Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Vehicle and Maritime Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-193932 (URN)
Projects
Centre for Eco2 Vehicle Design
Funder
VINNOVA
Note

QC 20161013

Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2016-10-13Bibliographically approved

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