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A Compact High-Brightness Liquid-Metal-Jet X-Ray Source
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis describes the development and characterization of a compact high-brightness liquid-metal-jet anode x-ray source. Initial calculations show that a source based on this concept could potentially lead to a >100-fold increase of the brightness compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode x-ray sources. This improvement is due to an increased thermal load capacity of the anode.

A low-power proof-of-principle source has been built, and experiments show that the liquid-metal-jet anode can be operated at more than an order of magnitude higher power densities than modern solid-metal anodes. This brightness enhancement has been utilized to acquire in-line phase-contrast images of weakly absorbing objects with substantially shorter exposure times than previously reported. To be able to target different application areas different liquid-jet-anode materials have been tested. The Sn-jet anode could potentially be used in mammography examinations, whereas the Ga-jet could be utilized for, e.g., protein-structure determination with x-ray diffraction.

Scaling to higher power and brightness levels is discussed and seems conceivable. A potential obstacle for further development of this source concept, the generation of a microscopic high-speed liquid-metal jet in vacuum, is investigated and is proven to be feasible. Dynamic-similarity experiments using water jets to simulate 30-μm, ~500-m/s tin and gallium jets show good coherence and directional stability of the jet. Other potential difficulties in the further source development, such as excessive debris emission and instabilities of the x-ray emission spot, are also investigated in some detail.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006. , xii, 61 p.
Series
Trita-FYS, ISSN 0280-316X ; 2006:36
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4005ISBN: 91-7178-371-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4005DiVA: diva2:10352
Public defence
2006-06-09, Sal D3, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100915Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2010-09-15Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode Electron-Impact X-Ray Source
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode Electron-Impact X-Ray Source
2003 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 83, 1483-1485 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A liquid-metal-jet anode for improved brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray source was investigated. The generated x-ray flux and brightness was quantitatively measured in the 7-50 keV spectral region and found to agree with the theory. Applications such as mammography, angiography, and diffraction would benefit from a compact high-brightness source.

Keyword
Angiography, Diffraction, Mammography, X ray analysis
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5834 (URN)10.1063/1.1602157 (DOI)000184748600068 ()
Note
QC 20100915Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. A Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode X-Ray Tube
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Liquid-Metal-Jet Anode X-Ray Tube
2004 (English)In: Optical Engineering: The Journal of SPIE, ISSN 0091-3286, E-ISSN 1560-2303, Vol. 43, no 7, 1682-1688 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We describe a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly

Keyword
brightness, X-ray source, electron-impact, liquid-metal jet
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5835 (URN)10.1117/1.1737787 (DOI)000222641200028 ()2-s2.0-4143078120 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100915 QC 20111101. Conference on Laser-Generated and Other Laboratory X-Ray and EUV Sources, Optics, and Applications. San Diego, CA. AUG 04-06, 2003 Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Microscopic High-Speed Liquid-Metal Jets in Vacuum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microscopic High-Speed Liquid-Metal Jets in Vacuum
2005 (English)In: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 39, 799-804 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We describe a novel electron-impact x-ray source based on a high-speed liquid-metal-jet anode. Thermal power load calculations indicate that this new anode concept potentially could increase the achievable brightness in compact electron-impact x-ray sources by more than a factor 100 compared to current state-of-the-art rotating-anode or microfocus sources. A first, successful, low-power proof-of-principle experiment is described and the feasibility of scaling to high-brightness and high-power operation is discussed. Some possible applications that would benefit from such an increase in brightness are also briefly

Keyword
brightness, X-ray source, electron-impact, liquid-metal jet
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5836 (URN)10.1007/s00348-005-0013-9 (DOI)000233239900002 ()2-s2.0-27744509715 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100915Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. X-Ray Imaging with an Electron- Impact Liquid-Metal-Jet-Anode Source
Open this publication in new window or tab >>X-Ray Imaging with an Electron- Impact Liquid-Metal-Jet-Anode Source
(English)In: Radiology, ISSN 0033-8419, E-ISSN 1527-1315Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5837 (URN)
Note
QS 20120327Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Stability and debris in high-brightness liquid-metal-jet-anode microfocus x-ray sources
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stability and debris in high-brightness liquid-metal-jet-anode microfocus x-ray sources
2007 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 101, no 2, 026102- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We investigate the x-ray spot stability and the debris emission in liquid-metal-jet anode electron-impact x-ray sources operating in the 10-100 W microfocus regime. The x-ray spot size is 15-23 mu m in diameter and the electron-beam power density is up to similar to 210 kW/mm(2), an order of magnitude higher than for conventional microfocus sources. In the power range of the investigation the source is stable in terms of spot size and position. The debris emission rate increases exponentially with the applied electron-beam power but may be reduced by combining larger and faster target jets with smaller e-beam foci and by mitigation schemes. It is concluded that the investigated factors will not limit the performance and function of liquid-metal-jet-anode electron-impact microfocus sources when operating in this high-brightness regime.

Keyword
Anodes, Electron beams, Light emission, Liquid metals, Debris emission, e-beam foci, Electron-impact, Microfocus x-ray sources
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8664 (URN)10.1063/1.2423229 (DOI)000243890800173 ()2-s2.0-33847751834 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100915Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
6. A 9 keV electron-impact liquid-gallium-jet x-ray source
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 9 keV electron-impact liquid-gallium-jet x-ray source
2008 (English)In: Review of Scientific Instruments, ISSN 0034-6748, E-ISSN 1089-7623, Vol. 79, no 1, 016102- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We demonstrate a high-brightness compact 9 keV electron-impact microfocus x-ray source based on a liquid-gallium-jet anode. A similar to 30 W, 50 kV electron gun is focused onto the similar to 20 m/s, 30 mu m diameter liquid-gallium-jet anode to produce an similar to 10 mu m full width at half maximum x-ray spot. The peak spectral brightness is >2 x 10(10) photons/(s mm(2) mrad(2) x 0.1% BW). Calculation and experiments show potential for increasing this brightness by approximately three orders of magnitude, making the source suitable for laboratory-scale x-ray crystallography and hard x-ray microscopy.

Keyword
Electron guns, Gallium, Luminance, Microscopic examination, Photons, X ray crystallography, Electron impact, Hard x-ray microscopy, Peak spectral brightness, X-ray spot
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-8666 (URN)10.1063/1.2833838 (DOI)000252821800060 ()2-s2.0-38849143134 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100915Available from: 2008-06-04 Created: 2008-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved

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