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Sub-Nyquist Sampling Impulse Radio UWB Receivers for the Internet-of-Things
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Industrial and Medical Electronics.
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In the era of Internet-of-Things, the demand for short range wireless links featured by low-power and low-cost, robust communication and high-precision positioning is growing rapidly. Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) technology characterized by the transmission of sub-nanosecond pulses spanning up to several GHz band with extremely low power spectral density emerges as a promising candidate. Nevertheless, several challenges must be confronted in order to take the full advantage of IR-UWB technology. The most significant one lies in the reception of UWB signals. Traditional receiver requires Nyquist rate ADC which is overwhelmingly complex and power hungry. This dissertation proposes and investigates possible sub-Nyquist sampling techniques for IR-UWB receiver design.

In the first part of this dissertation, the IR-UWB receiver based on energy detection (ED) principle is explored. A low-power ED receiver featured by flexibility and multi-mode operation is proposed. The receiver prototype for 3-5 GHz band is implemented in 90 nm CMOS. Measurement results demonstrate that 16.3 mW power consumption and -79 dBm sensitivity at 10 Mb/s data rate can be achieved. To further optimize the receiver performance, threshold optimization is suggested for the on-off-keying modulated signal, and adaptive synchronization and integration region optimization is proposed. Finally, a low complexity burst packet detection scheme is proposed, which is adaptive to the variations of noise background and link distance.

In the second part of this dissertation, the IR-UWB receiver based on compressed sensing (CS) theory is investigated. Firstly, appropriate sparse basis, sensing matrix and reconstruction algorithms are suggested for the CS based IR-UWB receiver. And then, the architectural analysis of the CS receiver with focuses on the random noise processes in the CS measurement procedure is presented. At last, a novel two-path noise-reducing architecture for the CS receiver is proposed. Besides the improvement on the receiver performance, the proposed architecture also relaxes the hardware implementation of the CS random projection as well as the back-end signal reconstruction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. , 79 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT, 2016:23
Keyword [en]
Ultra-Wideband, impulse radio, receiver, energy detection, compressed sensing, sub-Nyquist sampling, Internet-of-Things
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195816ISBN: 978-91-7729-174-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-195816DiVA: diva2:1045523
Public defence
2016-12-12, Sal 205, Electrum, Kista, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20161110

Available from: 2016-11-10 Created: 2016-11-09 Last updated: 2016-11-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A mixed-signal timing circuit in 90nm CMOS for energy detection IR-UWB receivers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A mixed-signal timing circuit in 90nm CMOS for energy detection IR-UWB receivers
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2010 (English)In: 23rd IEEE International SOC Conference, SOCC 2010, 2010, 413-416 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a flexible timing circuit with 1.1ns delay resolution for energy detection IR-UWB receivers. Referenced at 900MHz input clock, the circuit generates multi-phased integration windows and reset signals that enable/disable the operation of analog blocks. The design is highly programmable, adapting the receiver to pulse level synchronization, symbol level synchronization, different data rates and various channel environments. Mixed-signal design flow is adopted to avoid the complexity of full custom design and the large power consumption of full synthesized digital design. The timing circuit is implemented in UMC 90nm CMOS process, with 219 #x03BC;W power consumption and 190*295 #x03BC;m2 die area.

Keyword
CMOS;energy detection IR-UWB receivers;mixed-signal design flow;mixed-signal timing circuit;multiphased integration windows;power 219 muW;pulse level synchronization;reset signals;size 90 nm;symbol level synchronization;CMOS integrated circuits;mixed analogue-digital integrated circuits;radio receivers;synchronisation;timing circuits;ultra wideband communication;
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49207 (URN)10.1109/SOCC.2010.5784668 (DOI)2-s2.0-79960743674 (ScopusID)978-142446683-2 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd IEEE International SOC Conference, SOCC 2010; Las Vegas, NV; United States; 27 September 2010 through 29 September 2010;
Note

QC 20150714

Available from: 2011-11-25 Created: 2011-11-25 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
2. A Low-Power and Flexible Energy Detection IR-UWB Receiver for RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Low-Power and Flexible Energy Detection IR-UWB Receiver for RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks
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2011 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, ISSN 1549-8328, Vol. 58, no 7, 1470-1482 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an energy detection Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) receiver for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) applications. An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) consisting of a 3-5 GHz analog front-end, a timing circuit and a high speed baseband controller is implemented in a 90 nm standard CMOS technology. A Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is employed as a reconfigurable back-end, enabling adaptive baseband algorithms and ranging estimations. The proposed architecture is featured by high flexibility that adopts a wide range of pulse rate (512 kHz-33 MHz), processing gain (0-18 dB), correlation schemes, synchronization algorithms, and modulation schemes (PPM/OOK). The receiver prototype was fabricated and measured. The power consumption of the ASIC is 16.3 mW at 1 V power supply, which promises a minimal energy consumption of 0.5 nJ/bit. The whole link is evaluated together with a UWB RFID tag. Bit error rate (BER) measurement displays a sensitivity of -79 dBm at 10 Mb/s with 10(-3) BER achieved by the proposed receiver, corresponding to an operation distance over 10 meters under the FCC regulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2011
Keyword
Energy detection, Internet-of-Things, low power receiver, sensitivity, ultra-wideband (UWB)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-45298 (URN)10.1109/TCSI.2011.2142930 (DOI)000295587100003 ()2-s2.0-79959795819 (ScopusID)
Funder
ICT - The Next Generation
Note

QC 20111028

Available from: 2011-10-28 Created: 2011-10-28 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
3. A 90nm CMOS UHF/UWB asymmetric transceiver for RFID readers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 90nm CMOS UHF/UWB asymmetric transceiver for RFID readers
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2011 (English)In: European Solid-State Circuits Conference, 2011, 179-182 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an integrated asymmetric transceiver in 90nm CMOS technology for RFID reader. The proposed reader uses UHF transmitter to power up and inventory the tags. In the reverse link, a non-coherent Ultra-wide Band (UWB) receiver is deployed for data reception with high throughput and ranging capability. The transmitter delivers 160 kb/s ASK modulated data by an integrated modulator and a Digital Controlled Oscillator (DCO) in UHF band with 11% tuning range. The DCO consume 6 mW with 0.12 mm2 area. On the other side, adopting two integration channels, the 3-5 GHz energy detection receiver supports maximum 33 Mb/s data rate both in OOK and PPM modulations. The receiver front-end provides 59 dB voltage gain and 8.5 dB noise figure (NF). Measurement results shows that the receiver achieves an input sensitivity of -79 dBm at 10 Mb/s, with power consumption of 15.5 mW.

Keyword
ASK modulated data;CMOS UHF/UWB asymmetric transceiver;CMOS technology;OOK modulation;PPM modulation;RFID reader;UHF band;UHF transmitter;data reception;digital controlled oscillator;gain 59 dB;integrated asymmetric transceiver;noise figure 8.5 dB;noncoherent ultra-wide band receiver;power 15.5 mW;power 6 mW;reverse link;size 90 nm;tuning range;CMOS integrated circuits;UHF integrated circuits;amplitude shift keying;radio reception;radio transceivers;radiofrequency identification;ultra wideband communication;
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-49204 (URN)10.1109/ESSCIRC.2011.6044894 (DOI)2-s2.0-82955201686 (ScopusID)978-145770701-8 (ISBN)
Conference
37th European Solid-State Circuits Conference, ESSCIRC 2011; Helsinki; Finland; 12 September 2011 through 16 September 2011
Note

QC 20150713

Available from: 2011-11-25 Created: 2011-11-25 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
4. A Flexible Back-end with Optimum Threshold Estimation for OOK Based Energy Detection IR-UWB Receivers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Flexible Back-end with Optimum Threshold Estimation for OOK Based Energy Detection IR-UWB Receivers
2011 (English)In: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 2011, 130-134 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) exhibits strong advantages in low power and low cost applications such as RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks. This paper presents an on-off keying (OOK) based energy detection IR-UWB receiver with focus on the back-end design. In order to optimize the receiver performance according to different multi-path environment, variable integration interval and adaptive threshold optimization are considered in the proposed back-end which is composed by a programmable timing circuit and a reconfigurable baseband processor. The timing circuit is able to generate multi-phased integration windows with wide-range variable integration interval and is implemented in 90 nm CMOS process. Novel schemes on synchronization and optimum threshold estimation are suggested for baseband processing. The proposed synchronization scheme is based on maximum energy variance (between symbol `0' and `1') detection, covering both the pulse level and symbol level synchronization. And the scheme for optimum threshold estimation is based on look up table, enabling low complexity implementation. System simulation with IEEE 802.15.4a channel models shows an appreciable improvement on the bit error rate (BER) performance compared with the conventional scheme.

Keyword
Ultra-wideband (UWB), energy detection, on-off keying (OOK), threshold, synchronization
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-53128 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2011.6058811 (DOI)000302462400029 ()2-s2.0-82455221081 (ScopusID)978-1-4577-1762-8 (ISBN)978-1-4577-1763-5 (ISBN)
Conference
2011 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB). Bologna. 14 September 2011 - 16 September 2011
Note

QC 20111222

Available from: 2011-12-22 Created: 2011-12-22 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
5. Adaptive synchronization and integration region optimization for energy detection IR-UWB receivers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive synchronization and integration region optimization for energy detection IR-UWB receivers
2012 (English)In: Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, 62-66 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Non-coherent energy detection (ED) IR-UWB receivers exhibit strong advantages in low data rate, low power and low cost applications such as RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks. However, the performance of ED receivers is usually suffered from the noise enhancement due to the large time-bandwidth product. The integration region of the receiver integrator significantly affects the bit error rate (BER) performance. This paper presents a method of synchronization and estimating the optimal integration region (i.e., the starting point and the length of the integration window), which is based on the analysis of received signal energy capture and combined with a time of arrival (TOA) estimation. The proposed scheme is based on the symbol rate sampling and does not require a priori information about the channel delay profile. Besides, it can adapt to various indoor channel environments. The algorithm has a moderate accuracy but a very low complexity and fast synchronization speed. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by numerical results using IEEE 802.15.4a channel models.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2012
Series
Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, ISSN 2162-6588
Keyword
energy detection, integration region optimization, non-coherent, synchronization, UWB
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-100590 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2012.6340502 (DOI)2-s2.0-84870797550 (ScopusID)978-145772030-7 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, ICUWB 2012; Syracuse, NY;17 September 2012 through 20 September 2012
Note

QC 20130122

Available from: 2012-08-10 Created: 2012-08-10 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
6. Low complexity burst packet detection for wireless-powered UWB RFID systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low complexity burst packet detection for wireless-powered UWB RFID systems
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2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Wireless Broadband (ICUWB), 2015, 1-5 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper addresses the issue of UWB signal acquisition in the context of wireless powered UWB RFID systems. In this scenario, the data transmission is based on short packet so as to meet the micro-power budget of autonomous power harvesting. The burst short packet transmission as well as the low duty cycling UWB pulse modulation places a stringent challenge at the UWB receiver for timing acquisition and packet detection. Besides, in a positioning enabled RFID system where variable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to the variable link distance and noise background is unavoidable, conventional packet detection schemes rely on predefined threshold can hardly achieve good performance. In this study, we propose a low complexity method for burst packet detection. It is performed by sensing the preamble signal characteristic instead of the received signal strength, and thus bypassing the necessity of detection threshold. The validity of the proposed approach and its adaptivity to SNR variations is demonstrated by simulation results as well as field test with a UWB software defined radio (SDR) platform.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-184150 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2015.7324469 (DOI)000380434500080 ()2-s2.0-84962208004 (ScopusID)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Wireless Broadband (ICUWB), 4-7 Oct. 2015, Montreal, QC
Note

QC 20160404

Available from: 2016-03-29 Created: 2016-03-29 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
7. Exploration and performance evaluation of a compressed sensing based IR-UWB receiver
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploration and performance evaluation of a compressed sensing based IR-UWB receiver
2013 (English)In: 2013 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), IEEE , 2013, 226-230 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging technique which enables sub-Nyquist sampling of sparse or compressible signals. The application of CS theory in the impulse radio ultrawideband (IR-UWB) receiver design has recently attracted much attention. This paper provides an exploration of the CS-based IR-UWB receiver from different aspects: front-end hardware architectures, back-end signal processing algorithms as well as application scenarios. And the performance of the CS receiver regarding the number of CS measurement and different CS recovery algorithms is evaluated and compared against the conventional sub-Nyquist sampling receiver based on energy detection (ED) scheme. Moreover, a strategy to improve the CS receiver performance in handling UWB signals with heavy noise and multipath propagation is proposed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2013
Keyword
UWB, compressed sensing, receiver, sub-Nyquist sampling
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-136463 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2013.6663853 (DOI)2-s2.0-84892535909 (ScopusID)978-1-4799-0969-8 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), 15 Sep - 18 Sep 2013, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Note

QC 20140127

Available from: 2013-12-05 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2016-11-11Bibliographically approved
8. Architectural analysis of compressed sensing based IR-UWB receiver for communication and ranging
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architectural analysis of compressed sensing based IR-UWB receiver for communication and ranging
2014 (English)In: Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, 2014, 222-227 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Compressed sensing (CS) based impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) receiver has attracted much attention in recent years. This paper presents an architectural analysis of the CS-based IR-UWB receiver with focuses on investigating the random noise processes in the CS measurement procedure. We find that different noise sources (sky noise or amplifier noise) and different receiver architectures (parallel or serial) will results in different noise situation (correlated or uncorrelated) in the CS measurement procedure. Bit error rate (BER) simulation for a communication system and time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation for a ranging system in additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel as well as IEEE 802.15.4a CM1 channel are performed. It shows that CS-based signal detection in uncorrelated noise situation outperforms the correlated noise situation. This noise driven architectural analysis can be used as a design guideline for the CS-based IR-UWB receiver regarding different application scenarios.

Keyword
Compressed sensing, CS measurement, impulse radio, receiver; UWB
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-159593 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2014.6958982 (DOI)2-s2.0-84912063610 (ScopusID)
Conference
2014 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-WideBand, ICUWB 2014; Paris; France
Note

QC 20150302

Available from: 2015-02-04 Created: 2015-02-04 Last updated: 2017-03-03Bibliographically approved
9. Noise-reducing architecture of compressed sensing receiver for IR-UWB ranging systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Noise-reducing architecture of compressed sensing receiver for IR-UWB ranging systems
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2016 (English)Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A compressed sensing (CS) based impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) receiver with two-path noise-reducing RF front-end architecture is proposed. By adding an identicalinput path (antenna and gain stage) together with a mixer, the noise in the received signal before feeding into the CS sampling block is alleviated comparing with the conventional CS receiver. Moreover, the mixing stage shifts the signal frequency spectrum to the lower band which eases the CS sampling hardware as well as the complexity of back-end signal reconstruction. Simulation results for a ranging system validate that the proposed CS receiver significantly outperforms the conventional one in both additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel and IEEE802.15.4a multi-path channel.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-195697 (URN)10.1109/ICUWB.2016.7790526 (DOI)000391849700141 ()2-s2.0-85011066934 (ScopusID)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Ubiquitous Wireless Broadband (ICUWB 2016)
Note

QC 20161110

Available from: 2016-11-08 Created: 2016-11-08 Last updated: 2017-05-19Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
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  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • Other style
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