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Black Dross Processing: Utilization of Black Dross in the Production of a Ladle Fluxing Agent
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5803-5933
2017 (English)In: Journal of Sustainable Metallurgy, ISSN 2199-3831, Vol. 3, no 2, 265-273 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, black dross (BD) residue, a hazardous by-product generated during secondary aluminum production, has been evaluated as a possible raw material for the production of a calcium aluminate-based ladle fluxing agent to be used in the steel industry. The thermally treated BD [pretreated black dross (PBD)] used as a starting material, consisted of approximately 49.5 ± 3.5 wt% alumina and 0.3 wt% chloride. The effects of different process parameters on the properties of the produced flux were experimentally investigated, i.e., the CaO/Al2O3 ratio, the sintering temperature and time, and the cooling medium. The prepared samples were all sintered in a rapid high-temperature inductive furnace, and later characterized by SEM–EDS, XRD, XRF, and DTA/TG analyses. Dissolution tests were also performed using a synthetic slag simulating the carryover. Based on the presently obtained results, it can be concluded that the utilization of PBD as the alumina source during the production of a calcium aluminate fluxing agent shows promising results, and the optimum process conditions were established to be 1523 K for 15 min as the sintering temperature and time, water as the cooling medium, and a CaO/Al2O3 ratio of 0.94. Utilizing PBD as a raw material in the production of a value-added product would significantly reduce the need for the disposal of BD as a waste, and thereby help to decrease the overall environmental impact. It would also provide economic benefit to both the steel and aluminum industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017. Vol. 3, no 2, 265-273 p.
Keyword [en]
Aluminum, Pretreated black dross (PBD), Fluxing agent, Calcium aluminate
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Metallurgical process science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196541DOI: 10.1007/s40831-016-0076-2ISI: 000400824500007OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-196541DiVA: diva2:1046863
Note

QC 20161117

Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-11-15 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sustainable Aluminum and Iron Production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable Aluminum and Iron Production
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Aluminium recycling requires 95% less energy than primary production with no loss of quality. The Black Dross (BD) produced during secondary aluminium production contains high amounts of water-soluble compounds, therefore it is considered as a toxic waste. In the present work, salt removal from BD by thermal treatment has been investigated in laboratory scale. The optimum conditions for treatment were established, i.e., temperature, gas flow rate, holding time, rotation rate, and sample size. The overall degree of chloride removal was established to increase as a function of time and temperature. Even Pretreated Black Dross (PBD) was evaluated as a possible raw material for the production of a calcium aluminate-based ladle-fluxing agent to be used in the steel industry. The effects of different process parameters on the properties of the produced flux were experimentally investigated, i.e. CaO/Al2O3 ratio, temperature, holding time, and cooling media. The utilization of PBD as the alumina source during the production of a calcium aluminate fluxing agent shows promising results. The iron/steel industry is responsible for 9% of anthropogenic energy and process CO2 emissions. It is believed that the only way to a long-term reduction of the CO2 emissions from the iron/steel industry is commercialization of alternative processes such as Direct Reduction (DR) of iron oxide. Detailed knowledge of the kinetics of the reduction reactions is, however, a prerequisite for the design and optimization of the DR process. To obtain a better understanding of the reduction kinetics, a model was developed step-by-step, from a single pellet to a fixed bed with many pellets. The equations were solved using the commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics®. The final model considers the reaction rate and mass transfer inside the pellet, as well as the mass transfers and heat transfer in the fixed bed. All the models were verified against experimental results, and where found to describe the results in a satisfying way.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 84 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2017:3
Keyword
Sustainability, Optimization, Black Dross, Salt removal, Steel flux agent, Waste processing, Greenhouse gases, Direct reduction, COMSOL Multiphysics®
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196547 (URN)978-91-7729-214-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-01-09, F3, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20161128

Available from: 2016-11-28 Created: 2016-11-15 Last updated: 2016-11-28Bibliographically approved

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