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A gaming perspective on command and control
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2677-9759
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

In emergency management and in military operations, command and control comprises the collection of functions, systems and staff personnel that one or several executives draw on to arrive at decisions and seeing that these decisions are carried out. The large amount of available information coupled with modern computers and computer networks brings along the potential for making well-informed and quick decisions. Hence, decision-making is a central aspect in command and control, emphasizing an obvious need for development of adequate decision-supporting tools to be used in command and control centers. However, command and control takes place in a versatile environment, including both humans and artifacts, making the design of useful computer tools both challenging and multi-faceted.

This thesis deals with preparatory action in command and control settings with a focus on the strategic properties of a situation, i.e., to aid commanders in their operational planning activities with the utmost goal of ensuring that strategic interaction occurs under the most favorable circumstances possible. The thesis highlights and investigates the common features of interaction by approaching them broadly using a gaming perspective, taking into account various forms of strategic interaction in command and control. This governing idea, the command and control gaming perspective, is considered an overall contribution of the thesis.

Taking the gaming perspective, it turns out that the area ought to be approached from several research directions. In particular, the persistent gap between theory and applications can be bridged by approaching the command and control gaming perspective using both an applied and a theoretical research direction. On the one hand, the area of game theory in conjunction with research findings stemming from artificial intelligence need to be modified to be of use in applied command and control settings. On the other hand, existing games and simulations need to be adapted further to take theoretical game models into account.

Results include the following points: (1) classification of information with proposed measurements for a piece of information's precision, fitness for purpose and expected benefit, (2) identification of decision help and decision analysis as the two main directions for development of computerized tools in support of command and control, (3) development and implementation of a rule based algorithm for map-based decision analysis, (4) construction of an open source generic simulation environment to support command and control microworld research, (5) development of a generic tool for prediction of forthcoming troop movements using an algorithm stemming from particle filtering, (6) a non-linear multi-attribute utility function intended to take prevailing cognitive decision-making models into account, and (7) a framework based on game theory and influence diagrams to be used for command and control situation awareness enhancements. Field evaluations in cooperation with military commanders as well as game-theoretic computer experiments are presented in support of the results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006. , 79 p.
Series
Trita-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2006:07
Keyword [en]
command and control, decision-making, situation awareness, data fusion, simulation, gaming, experimentation, microworld research, graphical modeling, game theory, rationality
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4029ISBN: 91-7178-365-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4029DiVA: diva2:10469
Public defence
2006-06-15, E3, Osquars backe 14, Stockholm, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2006-06-02 Created: 2006-06-02 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Information awareness in command and control: precision, quality, utility
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Information awareness in command and control: precision, quality, utility
2000 (English)In: FUSION 2000: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Information Fusion, 2000, THB1/25-THB1/32 vol.2 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In current command and control system design, the concept of information plays a central role. In order to find architectures for situation and threat databases making full use of all dimensions of information, the concept of information awareness must be understood. We consider and define some information attributes: measures of precision, quality and usability, and suggest some uses of these concepts. The analysis is Bayesian. A critical point is where subjective Bayesian probabilities of decision makers meet the objective sensor related Bayesian assessments of the system. This interface must be designed to avoid credibility problems.

Keyword
Bayes methods, command and control systems, decision support systems, human factors, probability, user interfaces
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24195 (URN)2-7257-0000-0 (ISBN)
Conference
Third International Conference on Information Fusion
Note
QC 20100624Available from: 2010-08-24 Created: 2010-08-24 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
2. An Information Fusion Game Component
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Information Fusion Game Component
2006 (English)In: Journal of Advances in Information Fusion, ISSN 1557-6418, Vol. 1, no 2, 108-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Higher levels of the data fusion process call for prediction and awareness of the development of a situation. Since the situations handled by command and control systems develop by actions performed by opposing agents, pure probabilistic or evidential techniques are not fully sufficient tools for prediction. Game-theoretic tools can give an improved appreciation of the real uncertainty in this prediction task, and also be a tool in the planning process. Based on a combination of graphical inference models and game theory, we propose a decision support tool architecture for command and control situation awareness enhancements.

This paper outlines a framework for command and control decision-making in multi-agent settings. Decision-makers represent beliefs over models incorporating other decision-makers and the state of the environment. When combined, the decision-makers’ equilibrium strategies of the game can be inserted into a representation of the state of the environment to achieve a joint probability distribution for the whole situation in the form of a Bayesian network representation.

National Category
Computer Science
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24204 (URN)
Note

QC 20100825

Available from: 2010-08-25 Created: 2010-08-25 Last updated: 2017-09-25Bibliographically approved
3. Refinements of the command and control game component
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Refinements of the command and control game component
2005 (English)In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Conferenceon Information Fusion (FUSION 2005), 2005, 6-pp p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Prediction of future courses of events is a necessary ingredient in tomorrow's command and control centers. This is being identified in higher levels of, e.g., the JDL model where awareness of the development of a situation is crucial for providing a complete and comprehensible situation picture. To cope with gaming situations, i.e., situations where commanders make decisions based on other commanders' reasoning about one's own reasoning, traditional AI methods for inference need to be extended with algorithms stemming from game theory. In this article, we formalize the ideas of an information fusion "game component". Also, we review current state of the art when it comes to computational game theory and discuss the time constraints from an information fusion perspective along with a discussion regarding the solution/equilibrium selection problem. Furthermore, results from computer simulations and analysis of computational bottlenecks are presented.

National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5930 (URN)10.1109/ICIF.2005.1592034 (DOI)000234830400201 ()2-s2.0-33847153603 (Scopus ID)0-7803-9286-8 (ISBN)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2006-06-02 Created: 2006-06-02 Last updated: 2012-01-08Bibliographically approved
4. Enhanced situation awareness using random particles
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced situation awareness using random particles
Show others...
2005 (English)In: Proceedingsof the Tenth International Command and Control Research and TechnologySymposium (ICCRTS), 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Modern command and control systems present the current view of the situationthrough a situation picture that is being built up from fused sensor data. However,merely presenting a comprehensible description of the situation does not give thecommander complete awareness of the development of a situation. This articlepresents a generic tool for prediction of forthcoming troop movements. The techniqueis similar to particle filtering, a method used for approximate inference indynamic Bayesian networks.The prediction tool has been implemented and installed into an existent electronicwarfare system. The tool makes use of the system’s geographic informationsystem to extract geographic properties and calculate troop velocities in the terrainwhich is, in turn, being used for the construction of the tool’s transition model.Finally, the result is presented together with the situation picture.The prediction tool has been evaluated in field tests performed in cooperationwith the Swedish Armed Forces in an exercise in Sweden during the spring of2005. Officers and operators of the electronic warfare system were interviewedand exposed to the tool. Reactions were positive and prediction of future troopmovements was considered to be interesting for short-term tactical command andcontrol.

National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5927 (URN)
Conference
Tenth International Command and Control Research and TechnologySymposium (ICCRTS)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2006-06-02 Created: 2006-06-02 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
5. Assistance in Decision Making: Decision Help and Decision Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assistance in Decision Making: Decision Help and Decision Analysis
2001 (English)In: Proceedings Sixth International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, 2001Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Decision help and decision analysis are tools that will be of importance indecision support systems. They are likely to exist both in real operationalsystems and in simulation based systems used for training. In command andcontrol an example of a decision task is to command units in a geographicalenvironment. We have taken a closer look at this type of decision task, usinga simulated microworld as a research tool. In particular we are interested inthe case when the decision maker already has selected a course of action,but wants to have critique and suggestions of improvements. To analyze adecision where the “main direction” is already known in this way we denotedecision analysis, as opposed to decision help.An algorithm for decision analysis in maps has been developed. Thisalgorithm is based on rules. An implementation in Java with classes suitedfor reuse has been developed. The implementation has been tested in a microworldsystem, C3FIRE, suited for practice in forest fire fighting.

National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24196 (URN)
Conference
Sixth International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium
Note
QC 20100824Available from: 2010-08-24 Created: 2010-08-24 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
6. Game environment for command andcontrol operations (GECCO)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Game environment for command andcontrol operations (GECCO)
2001 (English)In: Proceedings of the First International Workshopon Cognitive Research With Microworlds, 2001, 85-95 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In GECCO we have implemented a game platform specificallyfor the Command and Control research community. GECCO is astrategy game where one move units on a map. The game is generic inthe sense that it stores all information regarding the scenario in files thatare easy to adjust. The source code is distributed to the research communityas open source, and it is well documented and well structured.The game is suited to all common computer environments.

National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24197 (URN)
Conference
First International Workshopon Cognitive Research With Microworlds
Note
QC 20100824Available from: 2010-08-24 Created: 2010-08-24 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved
7. A toolbox for multi-attribute decision-making
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A toolbox for multi-attribute decision-making
2003 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There are obvious opportunities to incorporate multiagent simulation in decision support tools for military commanders. To be successfully integrated, however, the simulation tool must fit into the overall decision process, in which the commander is involved. In this paper we propose some important properties of simulation-based tools for decision-making based on different theories on how decisions are made. Our theoretical contribution is a definition of a non-linear utility function that should better fit prevailing cognitive models of decision-making than traditional linear utility functions do. Finally we specify a toolbox that, based on the utility function, multiagent-based simulation and genetic algorithms, may be used to evolve strategies and to support decision-making in the Command and Control domain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2003. 13 p.
Series
Trita-NA, ISSN 0348-2952 ; 0307
National Category
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5928 (URN)10.1.1.101.6938 (DOI)
Note
QC 20100825Available from: 2006-06-02 Created: 2006-06-02 Last updated: 2010-08-25Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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