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Evaluation of methods for whole genome and transcriptome sequencing from nanograms of FFPE samples
KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Gene Technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2219-0197
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The most widely used method for the preservation of clinical tissue specimens is formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE). Simultaneous analysis of RNA and DNA from samples preserved using this method have long proved problematic, primarily due to lack of material. Here, we describe an attempt to build a complete analysis package for RNA and DNA extracted from single tissue sections. The workflow includes quality control of the extracted material, library preparation and data analysis. We extract DNA with varying integrity from FFPE sections and subject them to whole genome sequencing using two library preparation methods, Illumina TruSeq Nano using the Illumina NeoPrep and Rubicon Genomics ThruPlex. We are able to obtain some usable data, albeit with high duplication rates, demonstrating both the possibilities and challenges of sequencing damaged DNA. Two different approaches to transcriptome sequencing are assessed, the TruSeq RNA Access library preparation kit from Illumina and the SMARTer Stranded Total RNA-Seq Kit - Pico Input from Clonetech. The sequence capture approach of the TruSeq kit is shown to be more robust to low integrity RNA compared to the SMARTer kit. However, the SMARTer kit needs much less starting material and is able to yield data about all transcripts, not just protein coding mRNA.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196775OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-196775DiVA: diva2:1048426
Note

QC 20161124

Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Library Preparation for High Throughput DNA Sequencing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Library Preparation for High Throughput DNA Sequencing
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Order 3 billion base pairs of DNA in the correct order and you get the blueprint of a human, the genome. Before the introduction of massively parallel sequencing a little more than a decade ago it would cost around $10 million to get this blueprint. Since then, sequencing throughput and cost have plummeted and now that figure is around $1000, and large sequencing centres such as the National Genomics Infrastructure in Stockholm is sequencing the equivalent of 25 human genomes per hour. The papers that form the basis of this thesis cover different aspects of the rapidly expanding DNA sequencing field.

 

Paper I describes a model system that employ massively parallel sequencing to characterize the behaviour of type IIS restriction enzymes. Enzymes are biological macromolecules that catalyse chemical reactions in the cell. All commercially available sequencing systems use enzymes to prepare the nucleic acids before they are loaded on the machine. Thus, intimate knowledge of enzymes is vital not only when designing new sequencing protocols, but also for understanding the limitations of current protocols. Paper II covers the automation of a library preparation protocol for spatially resolved transcriptome sequencing. Automation increases the sample throughput and also minimises the risk of human errors that can introduce technical noise in the data. In paper III, the power of massively parallel sequencing is employed to describe the RNA content of the endometrium at two different time points during the menstrual cycle. Finally, paper IV covers the sequencing of highly degraded nucleic acids from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded samples. These samples often have a rich clinical background, making them extremely valuable for researchers. However, it is challenging to sequence these samples and this study looks at the impact that different preparation kits have on the quality of the sequencing data. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 56 p.
Series
TRITA-BIO-Report, ISSN 1654-2312 ; 2017:1
Keyword
DNA, RNA, sequencing, massively parallel sequencing, library preparation, automation, genome, transcriptome
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196560 (URN)978-91-7729-212-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-01-13, Air & Fire, Science for Life Laboratory, Tomtebodavägen 23, Solna, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20161124

Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-11-16 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved

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