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Prototyping with data: designer needs and tool support
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2355-3973
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3163-7296
2016 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

With large amounts of data available for interactive applications, data is becoming an increasingly important material in the design process. Consequently, including real data in prototyping work and early design iterations is desired, but prototyping tools currently allow mostly prototyping with dummy and static data. Programming skills are often required for prototyping with real data, which can be a problem for designers lacking such skills or when design ideas quickly need to be tested. We have analyzed approaches for prototyping with data taken by commercial prototyping tools targeted specifically at designers and we compare these solutions to data-related prototyping needs identified in a study, including interviews and prototyping tasks, with 7 design practitioners. We provide details on why and when prototyping with real data is valuable in the design process and we analyze challenges that designers may face when prototyping with data. Finally, we give a number of suggestions for prototyping tools aiming to support designers in prototyping with real data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. 473-483 p.
Keyword [en]
prototyping, data-driven applications, interaction design, prototyping tools
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-computer Interaction
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196841ISBN: 978-1-4503-4031-1 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-196841DiVA: diva2:1049185
Conference
11th ACM SIGCHI Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, DIS 2016, Gardens Point Campus of Queensland University of Technology (QUT)Brisbane, Australia, 4 June 2016 through 8 June 2016
Note

QC 20161124

Available from: 2016-11-23 Created: 2016-11-23 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Prototyping with Data: Opportunistic Development of Data-Driven Interactive Applications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prototyping with Data: Opportunistic Development of Data-Driven Interactive Applications
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

There is a growing amount of digital information available from Open-Data initiatives, Internet-of-Things technologies, and web APIs in general. At the same time, an increasing amount of technology in our lives is creating a desire to take advantage of the generated data for personal or professional interests. Building interactive applications that would address this desire is challenging since it requires advanced engineering skills that are normally reserved for professional software developers. However, more and more interactive applications are prototyped outside of enterprise environments, in more opportunistic settings. For example, knowledge workers apply end-user development techniques to solve their tasks, or groups of friends get together for a weekend hackathon in the hope of becoming the next big startup. This thesis focuses on how to design prototyping tools that support opportunistic development of interactive applications that take advantage of the growing amount of available data.

In particular, the goal of this thesis is to understand what are the current challenges of prototyping with data and to identify important qualities of tools addressing these challenges. To accomplish this, declarative development tools were explored, while keeping focus on what data and interaction the application should afford rather than on how they should be implemented (programmed). The work presented in this thesis was carried out as an iterative process which started with a design exploration of Model-based UI Development, followed by observations of prototyping practices through a series of hackathon events and an iterative design of Endev – a prototyping tool for data-driven web applications. Formative evaluations of Endev were conducted with programmers and interaction designers. 

The main results of this thesis are the identified challenges for prototyping with data and the key qualities required of prototyping tools that aim to address these challenges. The identified key qualities that lower the threshold for prototyping with data are: declarative prototyping, familiar and setup-free environment, and support tools. Qualities that raise the ceiling for what can be prototyped are: support for heterogeneous data and for advanced look and feel.

Abstract [sv]

Mer och mer digital information görs tillgänglig på olika sätt, t.ex. via öppna data-initiativ, Sakernas internet och API:er. Med en ökande teknikanvändning så skapas även ett intresse för att använda denna data i olika sammanhang, både privat och professionellt. Att bygga interaktiva applikationer som adresserar dessa intressen är en utmaning då det kräver avancerade ingenjörskunskaper, vilket man vanligtvis endast hittar hos professionella programmerare. Sam­tidigt byggs allt fler interaktiva applikationer utanför företagsmiljöer, i mer opportunistiska sammanhang. Detta kan till exempel vara kunskapsarbetare som använder sig av s.k. anveckling (eng. end-user development) för att lösa en uppgift, eller kompisar som träffas en helg för att hålla ett hackaton med hopp om att bli nästa framgångsrika startup-företag. Den här avhandlingen fokuserar på hur prototypverktyg kan utformas för att stödja utveckling av interaktiva applikationer i sådana opportunistiska sammanhang, som utnyttjar den ökande mängden av tillgänglig data.

Målet med arbetet som presenteras i den här avhandlingen har varit att förstå utmaningarna som det innebär att använda data i prototyparbete och att identifiera viktiga kvalitéer för de verktyg som ska kunna hantera detta. För att uppnå detta mål har verktyg för deklarativ programmering utforskats med ett fokus kring vilken data och interaktion en applikationen ska erbjuda snarare än hur den ska implementeras. Arbetet som presenteras i den här avhandlingen har genomförts som en iterativ process, med en startpunkt i en utforskning av modellbaserad gränssnittsutveckling, vilket sedan följdes av observationer av prototyparbete i praktiken genom en serie hackathon och en iterativ design av Endev, som är ett prototypverktyg för att skapa datadrivna webbapplikationer. Formativa utvärderingar av Endev har utförts med programmerare och interaktionsdesigners.

De viktigaste resultaten av den här avhandlingen är de utmaningar som har identifierats kring hur man skapar prototyper och de kvalitéer som krävs av prototypverktyg som ska adressera dessa utmaningar. De identifierade kvalitéerna som sänker trösklarna för att inkludera data i prototyper är: deklarativt prototyparbete, välbekanta och installationsfria miljöer, och supportverktyg. Kvalitéer som höjer taket för vad som kan göras i en prototyp är: stöd för olika typer av data och för avancerad “look and feel”.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2016. 85 p.
Series
TRITA-CSC-A, ISSN 1653-5723 ; 2016:29
Keyword
prototyping, model-based UI development, web engineering, interaction design
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Human-computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196851 (URN)978-91-7729-204-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-12-16, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-24 Created: 2016-11-24 Last updated: 2016-11-28Bibliographically approved

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