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Composition of lignin in outer cell-wall layers
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The composition of lignin in the outer cell-wall layers of spruce and poplar has been studied and the data obtained have been compared with those of the mature reference wood in which the secondary cell wall predominates. Materials with exclusively or predominantly outer cell-wall layers were examined. Accurate data relating to the lignin monomer composition and the number of β-O-4´ bonds were obtained from pure middle lamella/primary cell wall lignin. Firstly, a 10 000 year old white spruce material, with most of the secondary cell wall missing, was studied. The aged lignin was composed of guaiacyl units only, and was slightly more condensed but otherwise similar to the reference lignin.

Secondly, the developing xylem of a Norway spruce clone was analyzed during a growth season. In spring and early summer, growth is very rapid and the intention was to sample tissues in which the secondary cell-wall layers had not yet lignified, but where the outer layers at least had started to lignify. Microscopy, Klason lignin and carbohydrate analyses showed that the lignin in the developing xylem of samples from mid-June was located exclusively in the middle lamella. The lignin was more condensed, was composed of guaiacyl units only and contained more end-groups than the reference Norway spruce wood.

Thirdly, the cambial tissues of a Balsam poplar clone were surveyed during a growth season. Both the phloem side and the xylem side of the cambial region were examined. The Klason lignin content and carbohydrate monomer distribution showed that in June and August the tissues on the phloem side contained material with mainly middle lamella/primary walls. In June, the xylem side in the cambial region contained mainly middle lamella/primary walls, and in August the secondary cell wall carbohydrates were being deposited. Both tissues contained lignin that was more condensed and had more end-groups than the reference lignin. In mid-June, the developing xylem had a ratio of syringyl to guaiacyl units of 0.6, whereas the ratio for the reference wood was 1.3.

In the final study, lignin from the primary cell walls from a hybrid aspen cell suspension culture was investigated. The lignin contained only guaiacyl units which were more condensed than those observed in the reference poplar wood.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006. , 53 p.
Series
TRITA-FPT-Report, ISSN 1652-2443 ; 2006:16
Keyword [en]
Lignin, thioacidolysis, primary wall, middle lamella, Populus balsamifera, Populus tremula L. x P. tremuloides Michx., Picea abies, Picea glauca
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4036OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4036DiVA: diva2:10498
Public defence
2006-06-15, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20100920

Available from: 2006-06-02 Created: 2006-06-02 Last updated: 2016-12-21Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Composition of lignin in developing xylem of spruce
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Composition of lignin in developing xylem of spruce
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5949 (URN)
Note
QC 20100920Available from: 2006-06-02 Created: 2006-06-02 Last updated: 2010-09-20Bibliographically approved
2. Lignin composition in cambial tissues of poplar
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lignin composition in cambial tissues of poplar
2006 (English)In: Plant physiology and biochemistry (Paris), ISSN 0981-9428, E-ISSN 1873-2690, Vol. 44, no 11-12, 700-706 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The cambial tissues of a Populus balsamifera, Balsam poplar clone were studied during a growth season. The Klason and acid-soluble lignin contents were determined as well as the carbohydrate monomer distribution and the protein content. Both the phloem and the xylem sides of the cambial region were examined. The samples were analyzed by thioacidolysis and structures of dimeric products were determined by mass spectrometry after desulphuration. Chemical analysis of samples during the growth season was combined with microscopy of embedded specimens that showed the state of cell differentiation at the time of sampling. In spring and early summer, growth is very rapid and the intention was to collect tissue in which exclusively the middle lamella/primary cell wall had begun to lignify. The Klason lignin, protein content and carbohydrate monomer distribution showed that all the specimens from the cambial tissues sampled during a growth season contained predominantly middle lamella and primary walls; except for the developing xylem sampled in August where the carbohydrate composition showed that secondary walls were present. Thioacidolysis showed that the lignin from the cambial tissues had more condensed structures than the lignin from the reference balsam poplar clone wood. More guaiacyl than syringyl units were detected and mass spectrometry showed that the cambial tissues contained more lignin structures with end-groups than the reference sample. These results suggest that lignification in the cambial layer and early developing xylem may take place predominantly in a bulk fashion during the summer. (c) 2006 Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

Keyword
lignin, thioacidolysis, cambial tissues, middle lamella, Populus balsamifera, balsam poplar, developing xylem, developing phloem
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24605 (URN)10.1016/j.plaphy.2006.10.012 (DOI)000243445700010 ()2-s2.0-33845504447 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100920

Available from: 2010-09-20 Created: 2010-09-20 Last updated: 2016-12-21Bibliographically approved
3. Comparison between 10 000 year old and contemporary spruce lignin
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison between 10 000 year old and contemporary spruce lignin
Show others...
2009 (English)In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 43, no 1-2, 23-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

 Wood from white spruce Picea glauca that had been preserved by rapid burial in lake sediments 10,000 years ago, was investigated and compared to a contemporary reference white spruce wood. The 10,000-year old sample appeared to have an intact primary cell wall and middle lamella, whereas the carbohydrate monomer distribution, and microscopic images showed that the secondary wall was at least partially removed, indicating that this structure had been selectively attacked by bacteria. The Klason lignin amount in the aged spruce was found to be 60%. The relative lignin monomer content in the aged spruce was 9% lower than that of the reference wood, showing that there were fewer beta-O-4' linkages in the aged sample. This finding was supported by SEC analysis of the thioacidolysed samples as a larger proportion of lignin oligomers were observed in the aged spruce than in the reference material. This indicates a somewhat greater number of condensed bonds in the aged spruce than in the reference spruce sample. Quantitative C-13 NMR analysis and HSQC techniques applied on milled wood lignins (MWL) revealed no significant structural differences between the aged spruce and the reference.

Keyword
Carbohydrates, Gel permeation chromatography, Monomers, Oligomers, Polymers, Walls (structural partitions), Wood
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5948 (URN)10.1007/s00226-008-0222-5 (DOI)000263392100003 ()2-s2.0-60649094082 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100903. Uppdaterat från Manuskript till Artikel (20100903) Available from: 2006-06-02 Created: 2006-06-02 Last updated: 2010-09-20Bibliographically approved
4. Lignin isolated from primary walls of hybrid aspen cell cultures indicates significant differences in lignin structure between primary and secondary cell wall
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lignin isolated from primary walls of hybrid aspen cell cultures indicates significant differences in lignin structure between primary and secondary cell wall
2005 (English)In: Plant physiology and biochemistry (Paris), ISSN 0981-9428, Vol. 43, no 8, 777-785 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x tremuloides) cell cultures were grown for 7, 14 and 21 days. The cell cultures formed primary cell walls but no secondary cell wall according to carbohydrate analysis and microscopic characterization. The primary walls were lignified, increasingly with age, according to Klason lignin analysis. Presence of lignin in the primary walls, with a higher content in 21-day old cells than in 7-day old cells, was further Supported by phloroglucinol/HCI reagent test and confocal microscopy after both immunolocalization and staining with acriflavin. Both laccase and peroxidase activity were found in the cultures and the activity increased during lignin formation. The lignin from the cell culture material was compared to lignin from mature aspen wood, where most of the lignin originates in the secondary cell wall, and which served as our secondary cell wall control. Lignin from the cell walls was isolated and characterized by thioacidolysis followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The lignin in the cell cultures differed from lignin of mature aspen wood in that it consisted exclusively of guaiacyl units, and had a more condensed structure. Five lignin structures were identified by mass spectrometry in the cell suspension cultures. The results indicate that the hybrid aspen cell culture used in this investigation may be a convenient experimental system for studies of primary cell wall lignin.

Keyword
primary cell wall lignin hybrid aspen cell culture
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-24606 (URN)10.1016/j.plaphy.2005.07.007 (DOI)000233144100006 ()2-s2.0-26844492086 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100920Available from: 2010-09-20 Created: 2010-09-20 Last updated: 2012-03-21Bibliographically approved

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