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Flexible Paper Electrodes for Li-Ion Batteries Using Low Amount of TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Nanofibrils as Binder
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1713-1659
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9392-9059
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. Swerea KIMAB AB.
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9203-9313
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2016 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 8, no 28, 18097-18106 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flexible Li-ion batteries attract increasing interest for applications in bendable and wearable electronic devices. TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (TOCNF), a renewable material, is a promising candidate as binder for flexible Li-ion batteries with good mechanical properties. Paper batteries can be produced using a water-based paper making process, avoiding the use of toxic solvents. In this work, finely dispersed TOCNF was used and showed good binding properties at concentrations as low as 4 wt %. The TOCNF was characterized using atomic force microscopy and found to be well dispersed with fibrils of average widths of about 2.7 nm and lengths of approximately 0.1-1 mu m. Traces of moisture, trapped in the hygroscopic cellulose, is a concern when the material is used in Li-ion batteries. The low amount of binder reduces possible moisture and also increases the capacity of the electrodes, based on total weight. Effects of moisture on electrochemical battery performance were studied on electrodes dried at 110 degrees C in a vacuum for varying periods. It was found that increased drying time slightly increased the specific capacities of the LiFePO4 electrodes, whereas the capacities of the graphite electrodes decreased. The Coulombic efficiencies of the electrodes were not much affected by the varying drying times. Drying the electrodes for 1 h was enough to achieve good electrochemical performance. Addition of vinylene carbonate to the electrolyte had a positive effect on cycling for both graphite and LiFePO4. A failure mechanism observed at high TOCNF concentrations is the formation of compact films in the electrodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC , 2016. Vol. 8, no 28, 18097-18106 p.
Keyword [en]
TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils, binder, flexible paper electrodes, moisture, Li-ion batteries
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-196456DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b05016ISI: 000380298400038PubMedID: 27362635Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84979598428OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-196456DiVA: diva2:1050431
Note

QC 20161129

Available from: 2016-11-29 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2017-04-21Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Wood-based Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wood-based Materials for Lithium-ion Batteries
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) have become very important recently as power sources for portable electronics and electric vehicles. Today non-renewable petroleum-based polymers are used as binders in state-of-the-art LIB. Therefore, it is essential to investigate alternative binders, which are environmentally friendly and inexpensive. Using wood-based materials, such as cellulose and lignin, could make the batteries more environmentally benign, cheaper and easier to produce.

Lignin, a byproduct from the pulping industry and the second most abundant bio-polymer in wood, has been investigated for the first time as binder material for eco-friendly LIB. Both LiFePO4 (LFP) positive and graphite negative electrodes using pretreated lignin as binder exhibited good electrochemical performance. The drawback of lignin as binder is that its poor mechanical properties limit the preparation of a thick electrode, constraining the energy density for LIB.

In order to meet the demands of flexible and bendable electronic devices, cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) as binder materials have been successfully fabricated for flexible batteries by a water-based paper making process. It showed excellent binding properties for different kinds of electrode materials, which were homogenously dispersed in its visible network. The flexible electrodes obtained good mechanical and electrochemical properties. A study of different CNF shows that the manufacturing process affects the performance of the electrodes.

Another innovative LIB concept in this thesis was to build both lightweight and bendable LIB. Chopped carbon fibers (CF), bound by CNF, were demonstrated as both current collector and as a current collector-free negative electrode, produced by an easy filtration process. The gravimetric energy density was increased compared to cells with metallic current collectors. The CF-based lightweight and flexible electrode achieved a good cycling stability, rate capability, even after 4000 times of bending.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 48 p.
Series
TRITA-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2017:26
Keyword
binder, lignin, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils, flexible paper electrodes, lightweight, eco-friendly, Li-ion batteries
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Research subject
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-205663 (URN)978-91-7729-358-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-05-22, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

QC 20170421

Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2017-04-24Bibliographically approved

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