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Elaboration of a test method for the study of metal release from stainless steel particles in artificial biological media
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering. (Corrision Science)
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4431-0671
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9453-1333
2006 (English)In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 48, no 9, 2855-2866 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Data on metal release from stainless steel particles can be used in the assessment and quantification of the potential impact of stainless steel on health and the environment. To elaborate a test method suitable for the study of metal release from particles, the experimental parameters particle loading, agitation and separation of particles from the solution were investigated through exposure of 316L powder particles in two artificial biological media. The results suggest that a small particle loading, bi-linear shaking and centrifugation for separation of particles from the solution give the most reproducible results. They also show that metal release rates are strongly influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the test medium and the effective surface area of particles during exposure

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2006. Vol. 48, no 9, 2855-2866 p.
Keyword [en]
Metal release, Particles, Stainless steel, Surface area, Test method
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5959DOI: 10.1016/j.corsci.2005.10.005ISI: 000240767300031OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-5959DiVA: diva2:10508
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2006-06-07 Created: 2006-06-07 Last updated: 2010-11-19Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Metal release from powder particles in synthetic biological media
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal release from powder particles in synthetic biological media
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Humans are exposed to metals and metal-containing materials daily, either conscious, e.g. using metal tools or objects, or unconscious, e.g. during exposure to airborne metal-, and metal-containing particles. The diffuse dispersion of metals from different sources in the society, and the concern related to its potential risk for adverse effects on humans have gained an increased public and governmental attention both on a national and international level. In this context, the knowledge on metal release from metallic objects or metal-containing particles is essential for health risk assessment.

This thesis focuses on the study of metal release from powder particles of stainless steel and Cu-based materials exposed to synthetic body fluids mainly for simulating lung-like environments. The study comprises: i) development of a suitable experimental method for metal release studies of micron sized particles, ii) metal release data of individual alloy constituents from stainless steel powder particles of different particle sizes, and iii) Cu release from different Cu-based powder particles. In addition, the influence of chemical and physical properties of metallic particles and the test media are investigated. Selected results from Ni powder particles exposed to artificial sweat are presented for comparison. The outcome of this research is summarized through ten questions that are formulated to improve the general understanding of corrosion-induced metal release from metallic particles from a health risk perspective.

A robust, reproducible, fairly simple, and straightforward experimental procedure was elaborated for metal release studies on particles of micron or submicron size. Results in terms of metal release rates show, for stainless steel powder particles, generally very low metal release rates due to a protective surface oxide film, and Fe preferentially released compared to Cr and Ni. Metal release rates are time-dependent for both stainless steel powder particles and the different Cu-containing powders investigated. The release of Cu from the Cu-containing particles depends on the chemical and compositional properties of the Cu-based material, being either corrosion-induced or chemically dissolved. Moreover, the test medium also influences the metal release process. The metal release rate increases generally with decreasing pH of the test media. However, even at a comparable pH, the release rate may be different due to differences in the interaction between the particle surface and specific media.

The nature of particles is essentially different compared to massive sheet in terms of physical shape, surface composition and morphology. The surface area, and even the surface composition of metallic particles, depend on the particle size. The specific surface area of particles, area per mass, is intimately related to the particle size and has a large effect on the metal release process. Release rates increase with decreasing particle size due to a larger active surface area that takes part in the corrosion/dissolution process. The surface area that actually is active in the corrosion and metal release process (the effective area) governs the metal release process for both particles and massive sheet of metals or alloys. For particles, the effective surface area depends also on agglomeration conditions of particles during exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Materialvetenskap, 2006. 35 p.
Series
ISRN KTH/MSE-06/43-SE+CORR/AVH
Keyword
metal release, stainless steel, Cu, powder particles, synthetic body fluids, test method, in vitro tests
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4039 (URN)91-7178-376-8 (ISBN)
Presentation
2006-05-31, Sal Q2, KTH, Osquldas väg 10, Stockholm, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101119Available from: 2006-06-07 Created: 2006-06-07 Last updated: 2010-11-19Bibliographically approved
2. Metal Particles – Hazard or Risk? Elaboration and Implementation of a Research Strategy from a Surface and Corrosion Perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal Particles – Hazard or Risk? Elaboration and Implementation of a Research Strategy from a Surface and Corrosion Perspective
2009 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Do metal particles (including particles of pure metals, alloys, metal oxides and compounds) pose a hazard or risk to human health? In the light of this question, this thesis summarizes results from research conducted on metal particles, and describes the elaboration and implementation of an in vitro test methodology to study metal release from particles through corrosion and dissolution processes in synthetic biological media relevant for human exposure through inhalation/ingestion and dermal contact.

Bioaccessible metals are defined as the pool of released metals from particles that potentially could be made available for absorption by humans or other organisms. Studies of bioaccessible metals from different metal particles within this thesis have shown that the metal release process is influenced by material properties, particle specific properties, size distribution, surface area and morphology, as well as the chemistry of synthetic biological test media simulating various human exposure scenarios. The presence of metal particles in proximity to humans and the fact that metals can be released from particles to a varying extent is the hazard referred to in the title.

The bioavailable metal fraction of the released metals (the fraction available for uptake/absorption by humans through different exposure routes) is usually significantly smaller than the bioaccessible pool of released metals, and is largely related to the chemical form and state of oxidation of the released metals. Chemical speciation measurements of released chromium for instance revealed chromium to be complexed to its non-available form in simulated lung fluids. Such measurements provide an indirect measure of the potential risk for adverse health effects, when performed at relevant experimental conditions.

A more direct way to assess risks is to conduct toxicological in-vitro testing of metal particles, for instance on lung cell cultures relevant for human inhalation. Induced toxicity of metal particles on lung cells includes both the effect of the particles themselves and of the released metal fraction (including bioaccessible and bioavailable metals), the latter shown to be less predominant. The toxic response was clearly influenced by various experimental conditions such as sonication treatment of particles and the presence of serum proteins.

Thorough characterization of metal particles assessing parameters including chemical surface composition, degree of agglomeration in solution, size distribution, surface area and morphology was performed and discussed in relation to generated results of bioaccessibility, bioavailability and induced toxicity. One important conclusion was that neither the surface composition nor the bulk composition can be used to assess the extent of metals released from chromium-based alloy particles. These findings emphasize that information on physical-chemical properties and surface characteristics of particles is essential for an in-depth understanding of metal release processes and for further use and interpretation of bioaccessibility data to assess hazard and reduce any risks induced by human exposure to metal particles.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2009. xiv, 69 p.
Series
Trita-CHE-Report, ISSN 1654-1081 ; 2009:56
Keyword
ferro-chromium alloy, metal particles, bioaccessibility, chemical speciation, dermal contact, surface oxide, in-vitro testing, chemical speciation, cu, copper, comet assay, intracellular, ultrafine, in vitro, A549, cytotoxicity, DNA damage, nanoparticles, particle characterization, artificial sweat, nickel release, nickel powder particles, particle loadings, release kinetics, surface area, copper release, powder particles, synthetic body fluids, simulation of interstitial lung conditions, skin contact, metal release, stainless steel, particles, test method
National Category
Physical Chemistry Analytical Chemistry Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-11695 (URN)978-91-7415-472-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2009-12-14, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2009-12-04 Created: 2009-12-03 Last updated: 2010-08-03Bibliographically approved

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Pan, JinshanLeygraf, Christopher

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