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Metal release from powder particles in synthetic biological media
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Humans are exposed to metals and metal-containing materials daily, either conscious, e.g. using metal tools or objects, or unconscious, e.g. during exposure to airborne metal-, and metal-containing particles. The diffuse dispersion of metals from different sources in the society, and the concern related to its potential risk for adverse effects on humans have gained an increased public and governmental attention both on a national and international level. In this context, the knowledge on metal release from metallic objects or metal-containing particles is essential for health risk assessment.

This thesis focuses on the study of metal release from powder particles of stainless steel and Cu-based materials exposed to synthetic body fluids mainly for simulating lung-like environments. The study comprises: i) development of a suitable experimental method for metal release studies of micron sized particles, ii) metal release data of individual alloy constituents from stainless steel powder particles of different particle sizes, and iii) Cu release from different Cu-based powder particles. In addition, the influence of chemical and physical properties of metallic particles and the test media are investigated. Selected results from Ni powder particles exposed to artificial sweat are presented for comparison. The outcome of this research is summarized through ten questions that are formulated to improve the general understanding of corrosion-induced metal release from metallic particles from a health risk perspective.

A robust, reproducible, fairly simple, and straightforward experimental procedure was elaborated for metal release studies on particles of micron or submicron size. Results in terms of metal release rates show, for stainless steel powder particles, generally very low metal release rates due to a protective surface oxide film, and Fe preferentially released compared to Cr and Ni. Metal release rates are time-dependent for both stainless steel powder particles and the different Cu-containing powders investigated. The release of Cu from the Cu-containing particles depends on the chemical and compositional properties of the Cu-based material, being either corrosion-induced or chemically dissolved. Moreover, the test medium also influences the metal release process. The metal release rate increases generally with decreasing pH of the test media. However, even at a comparable pH, the release rate may be different due to differences in the interaction between the particle surface and specific media.

The nature of particles is essentially different compared to massive sheet in terms of physical shape, surface composition and morphology. The surface area, and even the surface composition of metallic particles, depend on the particle size. The specific surface area of particles, area per mass, is intimately related to the particle size and has a large effect on the metal release process. Release rates increase with decreasing particle size due to a larger active surface area that takes part in the corrosion/dissolution process. The surface area that actually is active in the corrosion and metal release process (the effective area) governs the metal release process for both particles and massive sheet of metals or alloys. For particles, the effective surface area depends also on agglomeration conditions of particles during exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Materialvetenskap , 2006. , 35 p.
Series
ISRN KTH/MSE-06/43-SE+CORR/AVH
Keyword [en]
metal release, stainless steel, Cu, powder particles, synthetic body fluids, test method, in vitro tests
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4039ISBN: 91-7178-376-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4039DiVA: diva2:10511
Presentation
2006-05-31, Sal Q2, KTH, Osquldas väg 10, Stockholm, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101119Available from: 2006-06-07 Created: 2006-06-07 Last updated: 2010-11-19Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Elaboration of a test method for the study of metal release from stainless steel particles in artificial biological media
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elaboration of a test method for the study of metal release from stainless steel particles in artificial biological media
2006 (English)In: Corrosion Science, ISSN 0010-938X, E-ISSN 1879-0496, Vol. 48, no 9, 2855-2866 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Data on metal release from stainless steel particles can be used in the assessment and quantification of the potential impact of stainless steel on health and the environment. To elaborate a test method suitable for the study of metal release from particles, the experimental parameters particle loading, agitation and separation of particles from the solution were investigated through exposure of 316L powder particles in two artificial biological media. The results suggest that a small particle loading, bi-linear shaking and centrifugation for separation of particles from the solution give the most reproducible results. They also show that metal release rates are strongly influenced by the physico-chemical properties of the test medium and the effective surface area of particles during exposure

Keyword
Metal release, Particles, Stainless steel, Surface area, Test method
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5959 (URN)10.1016/j.corsci.2005.10.005 (DOI)000240767300031 ()
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2006-06-07 Created: 2006-06-07 Last updated: 2010-11-19Bibliographically approved
2. In-vitro studies of copper release from powder particles in synthetic biological media
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-vitro studies of copper release from powder particles in synthetic biological media
2007 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 145, 51-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this paper is to provide quantitative data on copper release from powder particles of different copper materials, including artificial copper patina, Cu2O and metallic Cu, when exposed to different synthetic biological media to simulate an inhalation scenario and/or skin contact. Generated data may contribute in risk assessment of potential health effects following exposure to and handling of various copper materials. All tests were performed in vitro to determine total copper concentrations, release rates of total copper, and to elucidate its time-dependence. The copper release process was interpreted in terms of specific surface area, surface morphology-, and composition. All powder materials show a time-dependent release process with total copper release rates less than 3 μg/cm2 per hour at steady state conditions, for all media investigated. The importance of using relevant test media when simulating different interstitial lung conditions and difficulties encountered when comparing powder particles of essentially different properties are thoroughly discussed.

Keyword
Copper release; In vitro tests; Powder particles; Simulation of interstitial lung conditions; Skin contact; Synthetic body fluids
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5960 (URN)10.1016/j.envpol.2006.03.041 (DOI)000242348600007 ()
Note
QC 20100803Available from: 2006-06-07 Created: 2006-06-07 Last updated: 2010-12-06Bibliographically approved
3. Influence of particle size on metal release form 316L stainless steel powder particles in synthetic biological media
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of particle size on metal release form 316L stainless steel powder particles in synthetic biological media
(English)Manuscript (Other academic)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-5961 (URN)
Note
QC 20101119Available from: 2006-06-07 Created: 2006-06-07 Last updated: 2010-11-19Bibliographically approved

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