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A Comprehensive Study on the Geometrical Effects in High Power 4H-SiC BJTs
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7510-9639
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8108-2631
KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Integrated Devices and Circuits.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5845-3032
2016 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 64, no 3, 882-887 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Geometrical effects on the forward characteristics of high-power bipolar junction transistors are studied.An implantation-free area optimized junction termination is implemented in order to have a stable breakdown voltage. The effect of varying the emitter-base geometry, i.e., the emitter width (WE), the base width (WB), emitter contact–emitter edge distance (Wn), and base contact–emitter edge (Wp) on the on-state characteristics is studied in the different emitter cell geometries. The emitter size effect shows the highest influence on the current gain (β). It shows a significant effect on the β (single finger design, about 61%; square cell geometry, about 98%;hexagon cell geometry, about 90%). The base size effect also shows a significant improvement on the β of about 23% at a given WE.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016. Vol. 64, no 3, 882-887 p.
Keyword [en]
Base contact-emitter edge; base width; current density; current gain; emitter contact-emitter edge distance; emitter width; hexagon cell geometry; implantation-free; on-resistance; silicon carbide (SiC); single finger design; square cell geometry
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-197700DOI: 10.1109/TED.2016.2631303ISI: 000396056700023Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85001052547OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-197700DiVA: diva2:1052927
Note

QC 20161208

Available from: 2016-12-07 Created: 2016-12-07 Last updated: 2017-08-10Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Silicon Carbide Technology for High- and Ultra-High-Voltage Bipolar Junction Transistors and PiN Diodes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Silicon Carbide Technology for High- and Ultra-High-Voltage Bipolar Junction Transistors and PiN Diodes
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Silicon carbide (SiC) is an attractive material for high-voltage and high-temperature electronic applications owing to the wide bandgap, high critical electric field, and high thermal conductivity. High- and ultra-high-voltage silicon carbide bipolar devices, such as bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and PiN diodes, have the advantage of a low ON-resistance due to conductivity modulation compared to unipolar devices. However, in order to be fully competitive with unipolar devices, it is important to further improve the off-state and on-state characteristics, such as breakdown voltage, leakage current, common-emitter current gain, switching, current density, and ON-resistance.

In order to achieve a high breakdown voltage with a low leakage current, an efficient and easy to fabricate junction edge protection or termination is needed. Among different proposed junction edge protections, a mesa design integrated with junction termination extensions (JTEs) is a powerful approach. In this work, implantation-free 4H-SiC BJTs in two classes of voltage, i.e., 6 kV-class and 15 kV-class with an efficient and optimized implantation-free junction termination (O-JTE) and multiple-shallow-trench junction termination extension (ST-JTE) are designed, fabricated and characterized. These terminations result in high termination efficiency of 92% and 93%, respectively.

The 6 kV-class BJTs shows a maximum current gain of β = 44. A comprehensive study on the geometrical design is done in order to improve the on-state performances. For the first time, new cell geometries (square and hexagon) are presented for the SiC BJTs. The results show a significant improvement of the on-state characteristics because of a better utilization of the base area. At a given current gain, new cell geometries show a 42% higher current density and 21% lower ON-resistance. The results of this study, including an optimized fabrication process, are utilized in the 15 kV-class BJTs where a record high current gain of β = 139 is achieved.

Ultra-high-voltage PiN diodes in two classes of voltage, i.e., 10+ kV using on-axis 4H-SiC and 15 kV-class off-axis 4H-SiC, are presented. O-JTE is utilized for 15 kV-class PiN diodes, while three steps ion-implantation are used to form the JTE in 10+ kV PiN diodes. Carbon implantation followed by high-temperature annealing is also performed for the 10+ kV PiN diodes in order to enhance the lifetime. Both type diodes depict conductivity modulation in the drift layer. No bipolar degradation is observed in 10+ kV PiN diodes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 126 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT, 2017:02
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-197913 (URN)978-91-7729-183-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-01-20, Ka-Sal C (Sal Sven-Olof Öhrvik), KTH, Kistagången 16, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
StandUpSwedish Energy AgencySwedish Research Council
Note

QC 20161209

Available from: 2016-12-09 Created: 2016-12-09 Last updated: 2017-01-24Bibliographically approved
2. Design Optimization and Realization of 4H-SiC Bipolar Junction Transistors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design Optimization and Realization of 4H-SiC Bipolar Junction Transistors
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

4H-SiC-based bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) are attractive devices for high-voltage and high-temperature operations due to their high current capability, low specific on-resistance, and process simplicity. To extend the potential of SiC BJTs to power electronic industrial applications, it is essential to realize high-efficient devices with high-current and low-loss by a reliable and wafer-scale fabrication process. In this thesis, we focus on the improvement of the 4H-SiC BJT performance, including the device optimization and process development.

To optimize the 4H-SiC BJT design, a comprehensive study in terms of cell geometries, device scaling, and device layout is performed. The hexagon-cell geometry shows 42% higher current density and 21% lower specific on-resistance at a given maximum current gain compared to the interdigitated finger design. Also, a layout design, called intertwined, is used for 100% usage of the conducting area. A higher current is achieved by saving the inactive portion of the conducting area. Different multi-step etched edge termination techniques with an efficiency of >92% are realized.

Regarding the process development, an improved surface passivation is used to reduce the surface recombination and improve the maximum current gain of 4H-SiC BJTs. Moreover, wafer-scale lift-off-free processes for the n- and p-Ohmic contact technologies to 4H-SiC are successfully developed. Both Ohmic metal technologies are based on a self-aligned Ni-silicide (Ni-SALICIDE) process.

Regarding the device characterization, a maximum current gain of 40, a specific on-resistance of 20 mΩ·cm2, and a maximum breakdown voltage of 5.85 kV for the 4H-SiC BJTs are measured. By employing the enhanced surface passivation, a maximum current gain of 139 and a specific on-resistance of 579 mΩ·cm2 at the current density of 89 A/cm2 for the 15-kV class BJTs are obtained. Moreover, low-voltage 4H-SiC lateral BJTs and Darlington pair with output current of 1−15 A for high-temperature operations up to 500 °C were fabricated.

This thesis focuses on the improvement of the 4H-SiC BJT performance in terms of the device optimization and process development for high-voltage and high-temperature applications. The epilayer design and the device structure and topology are optimized to realize high-efficient BJTs. Also, wafer-scale fabrication process steps are developed to enable realization of high-current devices for the real applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 116 p.
Series
TRITA-ICT, 2017:14
Keyword
4H-SiC, BJT, high-voltage and ultra-high-voltage, high-temperature, self-aligned Ni-silicide (Ni-SALICIDE), lift-off-free, wafer-scale, current gain, Darlington
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electrical Engineering; Information and Communication Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-211659 (URN)978-91-7729-481-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-09-01, Sal B, Electrum, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Kistagången 16, Kista, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170810

Available from: 2017-08-10 Created: 2017-08-09 Last updated: 2017-08-10Bibliographically approved

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