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Influence of the Body and Neck on Head Kinematics and Brain Injury Risk in Bicycle Accident Situations
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0980-4051
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7908-6270
KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0125-0784
2016 (English)In: IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury , 2016, 459-478 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Previous studies about the influence of the neck on head kinematics and brain injuries have shown different results. Today bicycle helmets are certified with only a headform in radial experiments but could be improved with oblique impacts. Then the question is how the helmet's performance will be affected by the neck and the rest of the body. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use finite element simulations to investigate the influence of the body on head kinematics and injury prediction in single bicycleaccident situations with and without a helmet. The THUMS-KTH model was used to study the difference between head only and full body. In total, a simulation matrix of 120 simulations was compared by altering initial impact posture, head protection, and muscle activation. The results show that the body in impacts against a hard surface can change the amplitudes and curve shapes of the kinematics and brain tissue strain. The study found an average ratio between head only and full body for peak brain tissue strain to be 1.04 (SD 0.11), for peak linear acceleration 1.06 (SD 0.04), for peak angular acceleration 1.08 (SD 0.09) and for peak angular velocity 1.05 (SD 0.13).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury , 2016. 459-478 p.
Keyword [en]
bicycle, brain injuries, head, helmet, neck
National Category
Medical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-198528Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84996844535OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-198528DiVA: diva2:1057241
Conference
IRCOBI 2016
Note

QC 20170130

Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2017-10-12Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Understanding Boundary Conditions for Brain Injury Prediction: Finite Element Analysis of Vulnerable Road Users
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding Boundary Conditions for Brain Injury Prediction: Finite Element Analysis of Vulnerable Road Users
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Vulnerable road users (VRUs) are overrepresented in the statistics on severe and deadly injuries in traffic accidents, most commonly involving the head. The finite element (FE) method presents the possibility to model complex interactions between the human body and vehicles in order to better understand the injury mechanisms. While the rapid development of computer capacity has allowed for increasingly detailed FE-models, there is always a benefit of reducing the studied problem. Due to its material properties, the brain is more sensitive to rotational motion than to purely linear, resulting in complex injury causation. When studying brain injuries caused by a direct impact to the head, simulations using an isolated head model significantly increases efficiency compared to using a complete human body model. Also evaluation of head protective systems uses isolated mechanical head representations. It is not, however, established the extent to which the boundary conditions of the head determine the outcome of brain injuries.

FE models of both the entire human body and the isolated head were used in this thesis to study the effect of the body, as well as active neck muscle tension, on brain injury outcome in VRU accidents. A pediatric neck model was also developed to enable the study of age-specific effects. A vehicle windscreen model was developed to evaluate the necessity of capturing the failure deformation during pedestrian head impacts.

It was shown that the influence of the neck and body on brain injury prediction is greater in longer duration impacts, such as pedestrian head-to-windscreen impacts with an average difference of 21%. In accidents with shorter duration impacts, such as head-to-ground bicycle accidents, the average influence was between 3-12%. The influence did not consistently increase or limit the severity, and was dependent on the degree of rotation induced by the impact, as well as the mode of deformation induced in the neck. It was also shown that the predicted brain injury severity is dependent on capturing the large deformations of fractured windscreen, with the greatest effect near the windscreen frame. The pediatric neck model showed a large effect of age-dependent anatomical changes on inertial head loading, making it a promising tool to study the age-dependent effects in VRU accidents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 83 p.
Series
TRITA-STH : report, ISSN 1653-3836 ; 2017:11
Keyword
Brain injuries; Vulnerable Road Users; windscreen impacts; Finite Element Analysis; pedestrian accidents; cycling accidents; pediatric neck
National Category
Other Medical Engineering
Research subject
Applied Medical Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-215643 (URN)978-91-7729-568-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-11-06, T2, Hälsovägen 11C, Huddinge, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20171013

Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-12 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved

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