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Convergence and divergence in media: different perspectives
KTH, Superseded Departments, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
2004 (English)In: ICCC 8th International Conference on Electronic Publishing 2004,Brasilia, Brazil., 2004, 237-248 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A current issue in the media industry is coping with the effects of convergence. The concept ofconvergence is frequently used both in the academic field and within the media industry to denotethe ongoing restructuring of media companies as well as to describe the latest developments inmedia forms, distribution, and consumption. However, there is currently no generally accepteddefinition of the concept. Depending on the context, the meaning and connotations vary. Someresearchers suggest that convergence is a result of a change toward a more modern media societywhile others treat the concept as denoting the actual process toward a more efficient managementof the media value chain. This paper discusses various definitions of convergence, both in a historicalperspective and as it is used and understood in contemporary media and communications research,one aim being the evaluation of how the meaning of the concept has evolved during the past decade.The study is based on literature research and one conclusion is that convergence is a processdependent on current circumstances within society. The use of the concept has therefore developedfrom being mainly connected with digitalization in media technology to also include elements ofintegration, combination, competition and divergence. This paper suggests that convergence shouldbe seen as an ongoing process of media and media industry development that is dependent on and incontinuous interplay with a contrasting and complementary process, that of media divergence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. 237-248 p.
Keyword [en]
Convergence, divergence, multiple media publishing
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6011OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-6011DiVA: diva2:10581
Conference
ICCC 8th International Conference on Electronic Publishing 2004, Brasilia, Brazil.
Note
QC 20100623Available from: 2006-06-20 Created: 2006-06-20 Last updated: 2010-11-23Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. The influence of media convergence on strategies in newspaper production
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of media convergence on strategies in newspaper production
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Convergence implies that previously unalike areas come together, approaching a common goal. A subordinate concept of convergence, i.e., media convergence, is a concept that has become common when denoting a range of processes within the production of media content, its distribution and consumption. The concept of media convergence has achieved buzzword status in many contexts due to its widespread use.

The concept is not new and has been discussed by researchers in many academic fields and from several different points of views. This thesis will discuss media convergence as an ongoing process and not an end state.

Newspapers are one of many so-called publishing channels that provide information and entertainment. They have traditionally been printed on paper, but today’s digital technology makes it possible to provide newspapers through a number of different channels. The current strategy used by newspaper companies involves a process of convergence mainly regarding multiple publishing. A newspaper company interested in publishing content through multiple channels has to adapt its production workflow to produce content not only for the traditional printed edition, but also for the other channels.

In this thesis, a generalized value chain involving four main stages illustrates the production workflow at a newspaper company in relation to the convergence processes. The four stages are creation, packaging, distribution and consumption of content.

The findings of the thesis are based on studies of the newspaper industry in Sweden and reflect specific newspaper companies, their strategies, production workflow and ventures from 2002 to 2005. The methods used have been case studies, literature studies and scenarios.

Some of the conclusions of the thesis indicate that convergence processes have steered the newspaper companies’ development towards multiple channel publishing. Advancing technology and mergers between companies have contributed to the processes of convergence. However, the new publishing channels have been described as threatening to the traditional printed editions since they compete for consumers’ time and advertising revenues. Convergence of technology has made it possible to store, edit and publish material over many different networks using the same tools and the same database system. If the content is stored in a neutral format, it can be packaged and used in many different types of publishing channels. However, according to the studied newspapers, a fully automated workflow for all publishing channels is undesirable and impossible to achieve with the existing technology, standards and organizational structure.

This licentiate thesis will discuss some of the strategies behind multiple channel publishing, production workflows and market conditions to detect how the newspaper industry is coping with media convergence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH, 2005. v, 38 p.
Series
Trita-NA, ISSN 0348-2952 ; 0526
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4058 (URN)91-7178-138-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2005-10-12, 00:00
Note
QC 20101123Available from: 2006-06-20 Created: 2006-06-20 Last updated: 2010-11-23Bibliographically approved
2. Media Convergence and Digital News Services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Media Convergence and Digital News Services
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, media convergence strategies and added value of digital news services are investigated, focusing on the newspaper industry and it’s audience. Convergence implies that previously unalike areas come together, approaching a common goal. A subordinate concept of convergence, i.e., media convergence, is a concept that has become common when denoting a range of processes within the production of media content, its distribution and consumption.

Newspapers are one of many so-called publishing channels that provide information and entertainment. They have traditionally been printed on paper, but today’s digital technology makes it possible to provide newspapers through a number of different channels. The current strategy used by newspaper companies involves a process of convergence mainly regarding multiple publishing. A newspaper company interested in publishing content through multiple channels has to adapt its production workflow to produce content not only for the traditional printed edition, but also for the other channels. In this thesis, a generalized value chain involving four main stages illustrates the production workflow at a newspaper company in relation to the convergence processes. The four stages are creation, packaging, distribution and consumption of content.

One of the aims of this thesis is to assess how the views and strategies of newspaper companies concerning media convergence correspond with the opinions and views concerning convergence of their audience. In order to discuss this, seven types of media convergence are suggested.

Furthermore, the thesis explores how the newspaper industry is relating to the processes of convergence, using two examples: newspaper companies’ ventures into the use of moving images, and the newspaper companies’ strategies for a future epaper edition.

Among the findings of this thesis are that digital news services can add value to a newspaper company, however that the digital news services investigated, in their current form, are not sophisticated enough to give added value as perceived by the audience.

The findings of the thesis are based on studies of the newspaper industry in Sweden and reflect specific newspaper companies, their strategies, production workflow and ventures from 2002 to 2007. The methods used have mainly been case studies and surveys.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Medieteknik och grafisk prodduktion, 2007
Keyword
Media convergence, newspaper production, online newspaper
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4543 (URN)
Public defence
2007-12-07, B2, Bergs, Brinellvägen 23, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100622Available from: 2007-11-20 Created: 2007-11-20 Last updated: 2012-03-20Bibliographically approved

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