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The influence of media convergence on strategies in newspaper production
KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Numerical Analysis and Computer Science, NADA.
2005 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Convergence implies that previously unalike areas come together, approaching a common goal. A subordinate concept of convergence, i.e., media convergence, is a concept that has become common when denoting a range of processes within the production of media content, its distribution and consumption. The concept of media convergence has achieved buzzword status in many contexts due to its widespread use.

The concept is not new and has been discussed by researchers in many academic fields and from several different points of views. This thesis will discuss media convergence as an ongoing process and not an end state.

Newspapers are one of many so-called publishing channels that provide information and entertainment. They have traditionally been printed on paper, but today’s digital technology makes it possible to provide newspapers through a number of different channels. The current strategy used by newspaper companies involves a process of convergence mainly regarding multiple publishing. A newspaper company interested in publishing content through multiple channels has to adapt its production workflow to produce content not only for the traditional printed edition, but also for the other channels.

In this thesis, a generalized value chain involving four main stages illustrates the production workflow at a newspaper company in relation to the convergence processes. The four stages are creation, packaging, distribution and consumption of content.

The findings of the thesis are based on studies of the newspaper industry in Sweden and reflect specific newspaper companies, their strategies, production workflow and ventures from 2002 to 2005. The methods used have been case studies, literature studies and scenarios.

Some of the conclusions of the thesis indicate that convergence processes have steered the newspaper companies’ development towards multiple channel publishing. Advancing technology and mergers between companies have contributed to the processes of convergence. However, the new publishing channels have been described as threatening to the traditional printed editions since they compete for consumers’ time and advertising revenues. Convergence of technology has made it possible to store, edit and publish material over many different networks using the same tools and the same database system. If the content is stored in a neutral format, it can be packaged and used in many different types of publishing channels. However, according to the studied newspapers, a fully automated workflow for all publishing channels is undesirable and impossible to achieve with the existing technology, standards and organizational structure.

This licentiate thesis will discuss some of the strategies behind multiple channel publishing, production workflows and market conditions to detect how the newspaper industry is coping with media convergence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2005. , v, 38 p.
Series
Trita-NA, ISSN 0348-2952 ; 0526
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4058ISBN: 91-7178-138-2 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4058DiVA: diva2:10584
Presentation
2005-10-12, 00:00
Note
QC 20101123Available from: 2006-06-20 Created: 2006-06-20 Last updated: 2010-11-23Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Convergence and divergence in media: different perspectives
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Convergence and divergence in media: different perspectives
2004 (English)In: ICCC 8th International Conference on Electronic Publishing 2004,Brasilia, Brazil., 2004, 237-248 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A current issue in the media industry is coping with the effects of convergence. The concept ofconvergence is frequently used both in the academic field and within the media industry to denotethe ongoing restructuring of media companies as well as to describe the latest developments inmedia forms, distribution, and consumption. However, there is currently no generally accepteddefinition of the concept. Depending on the context, the meaning and connotations vary. Someresearchers suggest that convergence is a result of a change toward a more modern media societywhile others treat the concept as denoting the actual process toward a more efficient managementof the media value chain. This paper discusses various definitions of convergence, both in a historicalperspective and as it is used and understood in contemporary media and communications research,one aim being the evaluation of how the meaning of the concept has evolved during the past decade.The study is based on literature research and one conclusion is that convergence is a processdependent on current circumstances within society. The use of the concept has therefore developedfrom being mainly connected with digitalization in media technology to also include elements ofintegration, combination, competition and divergence. This paper suggests that convergence shouldbe seen as an ongoing process of media and media industry development that is dependent on and incontinuous interplay with a contrasting and complementary process, that of media divergence.

Keyword
Convergence, divergence, multiple media publishing
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6011 (URN)
Conference
ICCC 8th International Conference on Electronic Publishing 2004, Brasilia, Brazil.
Note
QC 20100623Available from: 2006-06-20 Created: 2006-06-20 Last updated: 2010-11-23Bibliographically approved
2. Evaluating digital TV as a publishing channel for newspapers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating digital TV as a publishing channel for newspapers
2003 (English)In: Proceedings of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, TAGA, 2003, 2003, 23-24 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Can there be synergies between newspapers and digital TV? What business synergies exist and are the technical formats reliable and flexible enough for cross media publishing? At the end of the 1990's, several Swedish newspapers applied for a license to broadcast digital TV. The major trend among newspapers during this time was to develop websites as a secondary publishing channel, and many companies withdrew their applications. Today, digital TV is again raising expectations. When digital TV broadcasting technology replaces analogue broadcasting, the media landscape will change. The conversion will offer new publishing and business opportunities for newspaper companies. We have studied three Swedish newspaper companies actively working with TV production, three major Nordic television companies, and five television broadcasting operators in Sweden. The objective is to give a wider perspective on the digital TV publishing market today, focusing on technical as well as on economical aspects. In addition, we have evaluated the next steps for newspaper companies interested in establishing themselves in the digital TV medium. The study indicates that among the viable strategies for small and medium sized newspapers are entering the digital TV business through text based services and using cross promotion in order to strengthen the brand.

Keyword
Cross media publishing, Digital TV, Newspapers, Standards
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6012 (URN)
Conference
Technical Associations of the Graphic Arts, TAGA, 2003
Note
QC 20100623Available from: 2006-06-20 Created: 2006-06-20 Last updated: 2010-11-23Bibliographically approved
3. E-Paper Production Workflow: Adapting Production Workflow Processes for Digital Newsprint
Open this publication in new window or tab >>E-Paper Production Workflow: Adapting Production Workflow Processes for Digital Newsprint
2004 (English)In: Proceedings of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, TAGA, 2004, 2004, 181-208 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study focuses on production flow for publishing in generic digital newsprint editions, such as e-paper, PDAs or on-line editions, by analyzing and mapping existing production workflow at three Swedish newspaper publishing companies covering the most common organizational types in the newspaper publishing industry today. Most newspaper publishing companies produce a range of electronic editions, all part of the digital newsprint family. In general, there exists two types of organizational production workflows - the integrated multiple channel workflow, and the separated, where the printed and the electronic workflows are detached, sometimes in totally separate organizations. Using scenarios, the aim is to propose a model for the production workflow of the electronic paper editions in newspaper publishing. The results indicate several possibilities for automation in the workflow. Furthermore, the study points out stages as challenges in the workflow where changes have to be done in order to introduce epaper as a publishing channel for news publishing. We will as an introduction, along with the workflow scenarios in this paper, also present a brief overview of the existing techniques for displaying content on electronic paper terminals.

Keyword
Digital Newsprint, E-paper, Multiple Channel Publishing, Newspaper Production Workflow
National Category
Media and Communications
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6013 (URN)2-s2.0-23244442667 (Scopus ID)
Conference
56th Annual Technical Conference of the Technical Association of the Graphic Arts, TAGA 2004; San Antonio, TX; 20 April 2004 through 20 April 2004
Note
QC 20100623Available from: 2006-06-20 Created: 2006-06-20 Last updated: 2010-11-23Bibliographically approved

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