In-Vessel Melt Retention of Pressurized Water Reactors: Historical Review and Future Research Needs
2016 (English)In: Engineering, ISSN 2096-8099, Vol. 2, no 1, 103-111 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
A historical review of in-vessel melt retention (IVR) is given, which is a severe accident mitigation measure extensively applied in Generation III pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The idea of IVR actually originated from the back-fitting of the Generation II reactor Loviisa VVER-440 in order to cope with the core-melt risk. It was then employed in the new deigns such as Westinghouse AP1000, the Korean APR1400 as well as Chinese advanced PWR designs HPR1000 and CAP1400. The most influential phenomena on the IVR strategy are in-vessel core melt evolution, the heat fluxes imposed on the vessel by the molten core, and the external cooling of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). For in-vessel melt evolution, past focus has only been placed on the melt pool convection in the lower plenum of the RPV; however, through our review and analysis, we believe that other in-vessel phenomena, including core degradation and relocation, debris formation, and coolability and melt pool formation, may all contribute to the final state of the melt pool and its thermal loads on the lower head. By looking into previous research on relevant topics, we aim to identify the missing pieces in the picture. Based on the state of the art, we conclude by proposing future research needs.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016. Vol. 2, no 1, 103-111 p.
Pressurized water reactor, Severe accident, In-vessel melt retention, Debris formation, Debris remelting, Melt pool formation, Melt pool thermal-hydraulics, Critical heat flux
IdentifiersURN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-198902DOI: 10.1016/J.ENG.2016.01.019ISI: 000389355500027OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-198902DiVA: diva2:1061322
QC 201701022017-01-022016-12-222017-01-02Bibliographically approved