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3-D Forming of Paper Materials
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7657-3794
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Paper materials have a long history of use as a packaging material, although traditional paper-based packaging is limited in its shape, complexity, and design. In order to better understand the deformation and failure mechanisms during 3-D forming, two experimental studies of paper materials have been conducted. Furthermore, constitutive modeling combined with explicit finite element modeling have been validated against numerous experimental setups and utilized to develop further understanding of 3-D forming processes.

Two experimental studies were necessary to further investigate and model the 3-D formability of paper materials. The combined effect of moisture and temperature on the uniaxial mechanical properties of paper was investigated, providing new insights into how moisture and temperature affect both the elastic and plastic properties of paper materials. Furthermore, the in-plane, biaxial yield and failure surfaces were experimentally investigated in both stress and strain space, which gave an operating window for 3-D forming processes as well as input parameters for the constitutive models.

The constitutive modeling of paper materials and explicit finite element modeling were directed towards two 3-D forming processes: deep drawing and hydroforming. The constitutive models were calibrated and validated against simple (typically uniaxial) mechanical tests, and the explicit finite element models (which utilize the developed constitutive models) were validated against 3-D forming experiments. Hand-made papers with fibers partially oxidized to dialcohol cellulose, which has greater extensibility than typical paper materials, was furthermore characterized, modeled, and 3-D formed as a demonstration of the potential of modified paper fiber products for 3-D forming applications.

Abstract [sv]

Papper har länge framgångsrikt använts som förpackningsmaterial, men traditionella pappers- och kartongförpackningar är begränsade i form och design. Två experimentella studier har utförts för att få bättre förståelse för deformations- och brottmekanismer under 3D formning. Resultat från konstitutivmodellering i kombination med explicit finit element modellering har validerats mot ett flertal experimentella uppställningar och använts för att utveckla bättre förståelse för 3D formningsprocesser.

Två experimentella studier var nödvändiga för att ytterligare undersöka och modellera pappersmaterials 3D formbarhet. I den första undersöktes den kombinerade effekten av fukt och temperatur på pappers enaxliga mekaniska egenskaper, vilket gav nya insikter om hur fukt och temperatur påverkar både de elastiska och de plastiska egenskaperna hos papper. I den andra har biaxiella (i planet) flyt- och brottytor undersökts experimentellt i både spännings- samt töjningsrymden, vilket gav ett processfönster för 3D formningsmetoder samt ingångsparametrar för de konstitutiva ekvationerna.

Konstitutiv modellering av pappersmateriel samt explicit finit element modellering riktades mot två 3D formningsprocesser: djupdragning och hydroformning. De konstitutiva modellerna kalibrerades och validerades mot enkla (oftast enaxliga) mekaniska experiment, och explicita finita elementmodeller (som utnyttjar de utvecklade konstitutiva modellerna) validerades mot 3D formningsexperiment. Handark med fibrer delvis oxiderade-reducerade till dialkohol cellulosa, som har större töjbarhet än andra pappersmateriel, har dessutom karakteriserats, modellerats, samt 3D formats som en demonstation av potentialen hos modifierade pappersfiberprodukter i 3D formning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. , 33 p.
Series
TRITA-HFL. Report / Royal Institute of Technology, Solid Mechanics, ISSN 1654-1472 ; 0608
Keyword [en]
3-D forming, finite element method, constitutive model, moisture, temperature, biaxial, hydroforming, deep drawing
Keyword [sv]
3D formning, finita elementmetoden, konstitutiv modell, fukt, temperatur, biaxiell, hydroformning, djupdragning
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-199294ISBN: 978-91-7729-250-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-199294DiVA: diva2:1061822
Public defence
2017-02-10, Sal F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170104

Available from: 2017-01-04 Created: 2017-01-03 Last updated: 2017-01-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The Combined Effects of Moisture and Temperature on the Mechanical Response of Paper
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Combined Effects of Moisture and Temperature on the Mechanical Response of Paper
2014 (English)In: Experimental mechanics, ISSN 0014-4851, E-ISSN 1741-2765, Vol. 54, no 8, 1329-1341 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To model advanced 3-D forming strategies for paper materials, the effects of environmental conditions on the mechanical behavior must be quantitatively and qualitatively understood. A tensile test method has been created, verified, and implemented to test paper at various moisture content and temperature levels. Testing results for one type of paper for moisture contents from 6.9 to 13.8 percent and temperatures from 23 to 168 degrees Celsius are presented and discussed. Coupled moisture and temperature effects have been discovered for maximum stress. Uncoupled effects have been discovered for elastic modulus, tangent modulus, hardening modulus, strain at break, tensile energy absorption (TEA), and approximate plastic strain. A hyperbolic tangent function is also utilized which captures the entire one-dimensional stress-strain response of paper. The effects of moisture and temperature on the three coefficients in the hyperbolic tangent function may be assumed to be uncoupled, which may simplify the development of moisture- and temperature-dependent constitutive models. All parameters were affected by both moisture and temperature with the exception of TEA, which was found to only be significantly dependent on temperature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer-Verlag New York, 2014
Keyword
Moisture, Temperature, Elastic properties, Plastic properties, Forming, Paper
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-154368 (URN)10.1007/s11340-014-9898-7 (DOI)000341812900003 ()2-s2.0-84907704336 (ScopusID)
Note

QC 20141020

Available from: 2014-10-20 Created: 2014-10-20 Last updated: 2017-01-03Bibliographically approved
2. Biaxial In-Plane Yield and Failure of Paperboard
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biaxial In-Plane Yield and Failure of Paperboard
2016 (English)In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 4, 659-667 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Paperboard is oftentimes subjected to biaxial in-plane stress and strain states, although very few experimental studies of the biaxial in-plane yield and failure of paperboard have been conducted. A new biaxial testing method to determine the in-plane stress- and strain-based yield and failure surface of paperboard was proposed and implemented. The method utilized cruciform specimens containing a reduced-thickness region (prepared by laser engraver) to increase probability of failure in that region, and digital image correlation was utilized to measure strain. The obtained stress-based failure surface was similar to previously reported results in the literature, but the obtained strain-based failure surface differed from the one previously reported strain-based failure surface. The obtained yield and failure surfaces had similar shape, providing confidence in both results due to the related deformation and failure mechanisms in paperboard. Furthermore, the overall shape of the stress- and strain-based yield surfaces was unaffected by the definition of the yield point. The obtained strain-based failure surface revealed the forming limits and therefore strengths and limitations of various 3-D forming methods for paperboard.

Keyword
Biaxial, Failure Surface, Forming Limit Diagram, Laser Engraving, Yield Surface
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-197376 (URN)000389905200015 ()2-s2.0-85006341927 (ScopusID)
Projects
BiMaC Innovation
Note

QC 20161212

Available from: 2016-12-05 Created: 2016-12-05 Last updated: 2017-01-24Bibliographically approved
3. Explicit FEM analysis of the deep drawing of paperboard
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Explicit FEM analysis of the deep drawing of paperboard
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Mechanics of materials (Print), ISSN 0167-6636, Vol. 89, 202-215 p., 2441Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An explicit finite element model of the deep-drawing of paperboard has been developed utilizing a custom yet simple material model which describes the anisotropy and plasticity of paperboard. The model was verified with a variety of tests and was then utilized to compare the punch force that was measured during the deep-drawing experiments to the punch force that was calculated during the deep-drawing simulations. All material parameters were calibrated based on individual experiments; thus, no parameter fitting was utilized to match the experimental deep-drawing results. The model was found to predict the experimental results with reasonable accuracy up to the point when wrinkling began to dominate the material response. Since most failures during paperboard deep-drawing occur before wrinkling begins to play a major role, this model can probably be utilized to study and predict the failure of deep-drawn paperboard cups. The overall trends and the effects of major process parameters are predicted by the model. The process parameters that were varied and compared for both experiments and simulations were: blankholder force, die temperature, and thickness. The model was utilized to discover that friction of the blankholder and die have significant effects on the punch force and thus the stress, implying that low-friction dies and blankholders can considerably reduce the failure probability and thus also improve the quality of deep-drawn paperboard cups.

Keyword
Deep-drawing, Paperboard, 3D-forming, Simulation, FEM; Modelling
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-171041 (URN)10.1016/j.mechmat.2015.06.014 (DOI)000359962400017 ()2-s2.0-84936759657 (ScopusID)
Note

QC 20150805

Available from: 2015-07-13 Created: 2015-07-13 Last updated: 2017-01-03Bibliographically approved
4. A Constitutive Model for Paperboard Including Wrinkle Prediction and Post-Wrinkle Behavior Applied to Deep Drawing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Constitutive Model for Paperboard Including Wrinkle Prediction and Post-Wrinkle Behavior Applied to Deep Drawing
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 43 p.
Series
TRITA-HFL. Report / Royal Institute of Technology, Solid Mechanics, ISSN 1654-1472 ; 606
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-199283 (URN)
Note

QC 20170104

Available from: 2017-01-03 Created: 2017-01-03 Last updated: 2017-01-04Bibliographically approved
5. Parametric Study of Hydroforming of Paper Materials Using the Explicit Finite Element Method with a Moisture-dependent and Temperature-dependent Constitutive Model
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parametric Study of Hydroforming of Paper Materials Using the Explicit Finite Element Method with a Moisture-dependent and Temperature-dependent Constitutive Model
2016 (English)In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 29, no 3, 145-160 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A moisture-dependent and temperature-dependent constitutive model for paper materials was proposed and implemented into a finite element model of the paper hydroforming process. Experimental hydroforming was conducted at temperatures of 23°C and 110 °C and moisture contents of 6.9 and 10.6 (respectively corresponding to 50 and 80% relative humidity). The proposed model, which also included the effects of drying, captured the extent of forming of all experimental results within reasonable accuracy. For the moisture content and temperature conditions in this study, the phenomenon of drying was found to be the reason why the application of temperature had a much greater effect on the degree of forming than hydroforming at various moisture contents. A simulation-based parametric study was conducted in order to identify the importance of various process and material parameters. This parametric study confirmed many previous empirical findings and was capable of quantifying the extent to which these process and material parameters affect the three-dimensional formability of paper. The coefficient of friction was identified as one of the most important factors when determining the extent of forming.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
Keyword
hydroforming, paper, finite element method, moisture, temperature
National Category
Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-180658 (URN)10.1002/pts.2193 (DOI)000370202200002 ()2-s2.0-84955598556 (ScopusID)
Projects
BiMaC Innovation
Note

QC 20160308. QC 20160319

Available from: 2016-01-19 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-01-03Bibliographically approved
6. Advanced Three-Dimensional Paper Structures: Mechanical Characterization and Forming of Sheets Made from Modied Cellulose Fibers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Advanced Three-Dimensional Paper Structures: Mechanical Characterization and Forming of Sheets Made from Modied Cellulose Fibers
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. 43 p.
Series
TRITA-HFL. Report / Royal Institute of Technology, Solid Mechanics, ISSN 1654-1472 ; 607
National Category
Materials Engineering Polymer Technologies Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-199284 (URN)
Note

QC 20170104

Available from: 2017-01-03 Created: 2017-01-03 Last updated: 2017-03-01Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
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  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
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  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
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Output format
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