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Imaging high-speed friction at the nanometer scale
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4331-6940
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8199-5510
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0675-974X
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2016 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 7, article id 13836Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Friction is a complicated phenomenon involving nonlinear dynamics at different length and time scales. Understanding its microscopic origin requires methods for measuring force on nanometer-scale asperities sliding at velocities reaching centimetres per second. Despite enormous advances in experimental technique, this combination of small length scale and high velocity remain elusive. We present a technique for rapidly measuring the frictional forces on a single asperity over a velocity range from zero to several centimetres per second. At each image pixel we obtain the velocity dependence of both conservative and dissipative forces, revealing the transition from stick-slip to smooth sliding friction. We explain measurements on graphite using a modified Prandtl-Tomlinson model, including the damped elastic deformation of the asperity. With its improved force sensitivity and small sliding amplitude, our method enables rapid and detailed surface mapping of the velocity dependence of frictional forces with less than 10 nm spatial resolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2016. Vol. 7, article id 13836
National Category
Nano Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-199479DOI: 10.1038/ncomms13836ISI: 000389671100002Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85006017883OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-199479DiVA, id: diva2:1067400
Note

QC 20170120

Available from: 2017-01-20 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Investigating nano-scale viscous and elastic forces withintermodulation: Studies in multifrequency atomic force microscopy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating nano-scale viscous and elastic forces withintermodulation: Studies in multifrequency atomic force microscopy
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Investigating visco-elastic forces at the nanometer-scale is important to thecharacterization of soft materials. A quantitative force measurement can be ob-tained using an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a calibrated force transducer(the AFM cantilever). In this thesis, we discuss and evaluate simple methods ofcalibration and we use these calibrations to measure dynamic force quadraturecurves for both normal and in-plane tip-surface forces using Intermodulation AFM(ImAFM).

ImAFM utilizes the nonlinearity of the tip-surface force by measuring the mix-ing between two or more drive frequencies placed close to a resonance of the AFMcantilever. The intermodulation response at many mixing frequencies provides ad-ditional observables, useful for characterization of materials. We use ImAFM nearthe first flexural resonance to measure visco-elastic materials and we show that sur-face motion plays an important role in the analysis of soft samples. To explain ourmeasurements we derive a simple model where the surface position is described byan exponential relaxation when perturbed from its equilibrium. Through numericalsimulations of this model we explain experiments for many different soft sampleswith varying properties. We further apply the intermodulation technique to softsamples in liquid.

ImAFM at the first torsional resonance frequency induces motion of the tip in-plane with the surface, enabling friction measurements between the tip and sample.Due to the high torsional resonance frequency, the tip velocity can reach severalcm/s, many orders of magnitude higher than typical AFM friction measurements.By measuring the amplitude dependence of the dynamic force quadrature curves,we can resolve the transition between the tip sticking to the surface, through stick-slip to free sliding motion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 90
Series
TRITA-SCI-FOU ; 2018:17
Keywords
Atomic Force Microscopy, Nonlinear dynamics, Soft materials, High- speed friction measurements, Modeling and numerical simulations
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-228322 (URN)978-91-7729-802-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-06-15, FB42, Albanova Universitetscentrum, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Note

QC 20180522

Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-21 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved

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Thorén, Per-AndersBorgani, RiccardoForchheimer, DanielHaviland, David B.

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