Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Fatty acid methyl esters as reactive diluents in solvent-borne thermally cured coil-coatings
KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
2006 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

This work describes how a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derived from a vegetable oil can be introduced as reactive diluent in a solvent-borne thermally cured coil-coating system. The evaluated reactive diluent, rape seed methyl ester (RME), has been evaluated both in a fully formulated clear coat system and via model studies.

A reactive diluent is a compound that acts as a solvent in the liquid paint, lowering the viscosity, and chemically reacts into the final film during cure. Introduction of a reactive diluent derived from vegetable oil give a more environmental compliant coating since a renewable material is incorporated in the coating and the amount of traditional solvent can be decreased. These positive environmental factors have increased the industrial interest.

The fully formulated clear coat studies describes how addition of reactive diluent affects rheological properties of the wet paint, film formation, incorporation, and final film properties in a hydroxyl-functional polyester/melamine coil-coating system. The coating were cured under industrial coil-coating cure conditions and analyzed with Raman, carbon-14 dating, extraction, dynamic mechanical analysis, and visually observed. Viscosity measurement of the wet paint show that RME works as a diluent. RME increase the mobility in the system enhancing the film formation process and occurrence of defect-free films. The incorporation of RME could not be confirmed by Raman analysis. However, carbon-14 dating did indicate the presence of RME that could not be extracted from the films. The appearance and mechanical properties of the films were also significantly affected by addition of RME. Dynamic mechanical analysis of the free standing films showed that the final film properties were affected by oven temperature, choice of co-solvent, and flash-off period.

Model studies were performed to further clarify how RME chemically can react through transesterification with the hydroxyl-groups of the polyester. RME and its two main components methyl oleate and methyl linoleate were reacted with primary alcohols with and without tertiary hydrogen both under low temperature (110, 130, 150, 170°C) and industrial cure conditions. The transesterification reaction was monitored with 1H-NMR and real time IR. Evaporation and side reactions, e.g. oxidation, are competing factors with the transesterification reaction. The fatty acid structure affects the conversion as a higher amount of unsaturations triggers higher degree of oxidation. The study also showed that reaction time and temperature affects the transesterification conversion, degree of side reactions, and catalyst choice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006. , 25 p.
Series
Trita-FPT-Report, ISSN 1652-2443 ; 2006:24
Keyword [en]
Fatty acids, Reactive diluents, Coatings, Thermal curing, Transesterification, Film properties
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4094ISBN: 91-7178-442-X (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4094DiVA: diva2:10699
Presentation
2006-09-29, K1, Kemihuset, Teknikringen 56, Stockholm, 14:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20101117Available from: 2006-09-08 Created: 2006-09-08 Last updated: 2010-11-17Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A Model Study on Fatty Acid Methyl Esters as Reactive Diluents in Thermally Cured Coil Coating Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Model Study on Fatty Acid Methyl Esters as Reactive Diluents in Thermally Cured Coil Coating Systems
2006 (English)In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 55, no 4, 382-387 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A model study on the transesterification reaction between fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), e.g. methyl oleate, methyl linoleate, rape seed methyl ester and different alcohols in thin films have been performed. The purpose was to evaluate the possibility to use fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) as reactive diluent in thermally cured coil-coating paints. A reactive diluent must be compatible, act as a diluent, react into the film without affecting the end properties. The transesterification between the methyl ester and hydroxyl functional model compounds was monitored by 1H-NMR and real time IR. The effects addressed in the present study were compatibility, temperature, catalyst, alcohol structure, and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) structure. Competing factors with the transesterification reaction were shown to be evaporation and side reactions i.e. oxidation. The structure of the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) affects the conversion as a higher amount of unsaturations triggers the competing side reaction oxidation. The reaction time and temperature affects both the degree of transesterification conversion, degree of side reactions and the catalyst choice. The present study has shown that a fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) fulfils the reactivity part for a reactive diluent in a thermally cured coating system.

Keyword
Fatty acids, Reactive diluents, Coatings, Thermal curing, Transesterification
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4855 (URN)10.1016/j.porgcoat.2006.02.002 (DOI)000236698400011 ()2-s2.0-33645135234 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100816Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
2. The Effect of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters on the Curing Performance and Final Properties of Thermally Cured Solvent-Borne Coil Coatings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters on the Curing Performance and Final Properties of Thermally Cured Solvent-Borne Coil Coatings
2007 (English)In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 59, no 2, 146-151 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The solvent content of a thermally cured coil-coating paint may be reduced by introducing a reactive diluent derived from a vegetable oil and thereby producing a coating partly based on a renewable resource. A reactive diluent acts as a solvent in the liquid paint, lowering the viscosity, and is then incorporated into the film during cure. In the present study, rape seed methyl ester (RME) has been evaluated as reactive diluent in a thermally cured hydroxyl-functional polyester/melamine system. RME has suitable diluting properties and functionality to be incorporated into the dry coating. Dynamic mechanical analysis of free standing films shows that the final film properties are affected by presence of reactive diluent, oven temperature, choice of co-solvent, and flash-off period.

Keyword
Fatty acids, Reactive diluents, Coatings, Thermal curing, Film properties
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4854 (URN)10.1016/j.porgcoat.2007.02.004 (DOI)000246935500008 ()2-s2.0-34247593705 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100816Available from: 2008-09-04 Created: 2008-09-04 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(606 kB)3796 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 606 kBChecksum MD5
d4f604e2bb021a211d98ed0f3424ff595a0bd36156184a4911a8d6b7c94c9edc38a20d75
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Johansson, Katarina
By organisation
Fibre and Polymer Technology
Polymer Chemistry

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 3796 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

isbn
urn-nbn
Total: 887 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf