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The effect of humidity cycle amplitude on accelerated tensile creep of paper
KTH, Superseded Departments, Solid Mechanics.
2004 (English)In: Mechanics of time-dependant materials, ISSN 1385-2000, E-ISSN 1573-2738, Vol. 8, no 4, 289-302 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The creep of paper is accelerated by moisture cycling, an effect known as mechanosorptive creep. In this paper, the effect of different amplitudes of the moisture content is investigated experimentally and numerically. Tensile creep tests were made in a climate chamber. Low basis weight isotropic sheets were used in the tests. The moisture content history was measured during each creep test using a balance placed in the climate chamber. The experimental results are compared to predictions using a theoretical network model. A brief description of the model is given. In the model it is assumed that the anisotropic hygroexpansion of the fibres produces large stresses at the fibre-fibre bonds when moisture changes. The resulting stress state will accelerate creep if the material obeys creep laws that are nonlinear in stress. A quite good fit between the theoretical model and the experimental creep curves is obtained.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2004. Vol. 8, no 4, 289-302 p.
Keyword [en]
creep test, mechano-sorptive creep, moisture accelerated creep, network model, paper
National Category
Chemical Engineering
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6103DOI: 10.1007/s11043-004-0536-0ISI: 000229288900001ScopusID: 2-s2.0-18244386209OAI: diva2:10719
Available from: 2004-11-30 Created: 2004-11-30 Last updated: 2011-09-20Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Micro-mechanically based modeling of mechano-sorptive creep in paper
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micro-mechanically based modeling of mechano-sorptive creep in paper
2004 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

The creep of paper is accelerated by moisture content changes. This acceleration is known as mechano-sorptive creep, which is also found in wood and some other materials. Mechano-sorptive creep has been known for several decades but it is still not well understood, and there is no generally accepted model explaining the effect.

In this thesis, it is assumed that mechano-sorptive creep is the result of transient redistributions of stresses during moisture content changes in combination with non-linear creep behaviour of the material. The stress redistributions are caused by the anisotropic hygroexpansion of the fibres, which will give a mismatch of hygroexpansive strains at the bonds and hence large stresses each time the moisture content changes. This redistribution will lead to an uneven stress state. If the creep of the material depends non-linearly on stresses this will give an increase in creep rate where the stresses are high, that is larger than the decrease of creep rate where stresses are low, so in average there will be an increase in creep rate. The stress distribution evens out as the stresses relax during creep, and the moisture content has to change again to create a new uneven stress state and maintain the accelerated creep.

Two different network models based on this mechanism are developed in this thesis. Numerical simulations show that the models produce results similar to the mechano-sorptive creep found in paper. In the first model it is assumed that creep takes place in the fibre-fibre interfaces at the bonds, in the second the creep of the fibres themselves is accelerated. The second model is further developed. Experiments verify model predictions of the dependence of the amplitude of moisture changes.

The second model shows a linear relationship between mechanical load and deformation, although creep of the fibres depends non-linearly on stresses. This linear behaviour is also found in applications. Further analysis shows that the mechanical load can be treated as a small perturbation of the internal stress state caused by moisture content changes. This can be used to develop a linearized model, from which a continuum model can be derived. This leads to a reduction of the necessary number of variables, and a significant increase in speed of calculations. Hence, this linearized continuum model can be used as a constitutive law of paper in problems with complicated geometries, for example a corrugated board box in varying humidity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Hållfasthetslära, 2004
Trita-HFL, ISSN 1104-6813 ; 0376
Materials science, applied mechanics, materials science, packaging, Materialvetenskap
National Category
Materials Engineering
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-41 (URN)
Public defence
2004-11-11, D2, KTH, Lindstedtsvägen 5, Stockholm, 13:15
Available from: 2004-11-30 Created: 2004-11-30 Last updated: 2012-03-19

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