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Non-contact rolling surface wave measurements on asphalt concrete
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Soil and Rock Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5665-8288
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Highway Engineering Laboratory.
(English)In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402Article in journal (Other academic) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Rolling surface wave measurements on a single, thin asphalt concrete (AC) layer arepresented to investigate their use in rapid nondestructive field tests. An array of 47 micro-electromechanicalsensor (MEMS) microphones is mounted on a trailer together with an automated impactsource. Multichannel recordings from single impacts are obtained at 80 equally spaced positions as thetrailer moves at a constant speed. The complete battery-powered data acquisition system enables largescaletesting of newly built pavements. Multiple sets of test results show good repeatability for theassessed shear wave velocity and demonstrate the strong temperature dependency of AC. The presentedresults indicate a possible application for quality assurance of AC using rolling surface wavemeasurements.

Keywords [en]
asphalt concrete; seismic testing; rolling measurements; non-contact measurements; MEMS receivers; surface waves
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201025OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-201025DiVA, id: diva2:1072415
Note

QC 20170208

Available from: 2017-02-07 Created: 2017-02-07 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Non-contact surface wave measurements on pavements
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-contact surface wave measurements on pavements
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, nondestructive surface wave measurements are presented for characterization of dynamic modulus and layer thickness on different pavements and cement concrete slabs. Air-coupled microphones enable rapid data acquisition without physical contact with the pavement surface.

Quality control of asphalt concrete pavements is crucial to verify the specified properties and to prevent premature failure. Testing today is primarily based on destructive testing and the evaluation of core samples to verify the degree of compaction through determination of density and air void content. However, mechanical properties are generally not evaluated since conventional testing is time-consuming, expensive, and complicated to perform. Recent developments demonstrate the ability to accurately determine the complex modulus as a function of loading time (frequency) and temperature using seismic laboratory testing. Therefore, there is an increasing interest for faster, continuous field data evaluation methods that can be linked to the results obtained in the laboratory, for future quality control of pavements based on mechanical properties.

Surface wave data acquisition using accelerometers has successfully been used to determine dynamic modulus and thickness of the top asphalt concrete layer in the field. However, accelerometers require a new setup for each individual measurement and are therefore slow when testing is performed in multiple positions. Non-contact sensors, such as air-coupled microphones, are in this thesis established to enable faster surface wave testing performed on-the-fly.

For this project, a new data acquisition system is designed and built to enable rapid surface wave measurements while rolling a data acquisition trolley. A series of 48 air-coupled micro-electro-mechanical sensor (MEMS) microphones are mounted on a straight array to realize instant collection of multichannel data records from a single impact. The data acquisition and evaluation is shown to provide robust, high resolution results comparable to conventional accelerometer measurements. The importance of a perfect alignment between the tested structure’s surface and the microphone array is investigated by numerical analyses.

Evaluated multichannel measurements collected in the field are compared to resonance testing on core specimens extracted from the same positions, indicating small differences. Rolling surface wave measurements obtained in the field at different temperatures also demonstrate the strong temperature dependency of asphalt concrete.

A new innovative method is also presented to determine the thickness of plate like structures. The Impact Echo (IE) method, commonly applied to determine thickness of cement concrete slabs using an accelerometer, is not ideal when air-coupled microphones are employed due to low signal-to-noise ratio. Instead, it is established how non-contact receivers are able to identify the frequency of propagating waves with counter-directed phase velocity and group velocity, directly linked to the IE thickness resonance frequency.

The presented non-contact surface wave testing indicates good potential for future rolling quality control of asphalt concrete pavements.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. p. 70
Series
TRITA-JOB PHD, ISSN 1650-9501 ; 1025
Keywords
seismic testing, asphalt concrete, dynamic modulus, non-contact measurements, rolling measurements, surface waves, Lamb waves, MEMS microphones
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Civil and Architectural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-201147 (URN)978-91-7729-263-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-03-08, Kollegiesalen, Brinellvägen 8, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170209

Available from: 2017-02-09 Created: 2017-02-09 Last updated: 2017-02-13Bibliographically approved

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Bjurström, Henrik

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