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Wind Power Integration in Power Systems with Transmission Bottlenecks
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

During the last two decades, the increase in electricity demand and environmental concern resulted in fast growth of power production from renewable sources. Wind power is one of the most efficient alternatives. Due to the rapid development of wind turbine technology and increasing size of wind farms, wind power plays a significant part in the power production mix of Germany, Spain, Denmark, and some other countries.

The best conditions for the development of wind farms are in remote, open areas with low population density. The transmission system in such areas might not be dimensioned to accommodate additional large-scale power infeed. Furthermore a part of the existing transmission capacity might already be reserved for conventional power plants situated in the same area.

In this thesis four alternatives for large-scale wind power integration in areas with transmission bottlenecks are considered. The first possibility is to revise the methods for calculation of available transmission capacity. The second solution for large-scale integration of wind power in such areas is to reinforce the network. This alternative, however, may be expensive and time consuming. As wind power production depends on the wind speed, the full load hours of wind turbine generator are only 2000-4000 hours per year. Therefore reinforcing a transmission network in order to remove a bottleneck completely is often not economically justified. Wind energy curtailments during congestion situations is then the third solution for large-scale wind power integration with less or no grid reinforcement. The fourth solution is to store excess wind energy. Pumped hydro storage or battery storage for the large-scale wind farms are still rather expensive options, but existing conventional power plants with fast production control capabilities and sufficient storage capacity, e.g., hydro power plants, could be used for this purpose.

As there is a lot of research work on the first two alternatives, the thesis provides a review and summarizes the main conclusions from the existing work. The thesis is then directed towards the development of the methods for estimation of wind energy curtailments, evaluation of wind energy storage possibility in hydro reservoirs and development of short term hydro power production planning methods, considering coordination with wind power.

Additionally in the thesis the strategy that minimizes imbalance costs of a wind power utility, trading wind power on the short term power market is elaborated and analyzed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006.
Series
Trita-ETS, ISSN 1650-674X ; 2006:041
Keyword [en]
wind power, hydro power, transmission bottlenecks, stochastic optimization
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4108ISBN: 91-7178-445-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4108DiVA: diva2:10765
Public defence
2006-10-03, V2, Teknikringen 76, Stockholm, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
QC 20100608Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2010-06-08Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Wind Power in Areas with Limited Transmission Capacity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wind Power in Areas with Limited Transmission Capacity
2005 (English)In: Wind power in power systems / [ed] Ackermann, Thomas, Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd , 2005, 433-459 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chichester, West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005
Keyword
wind power plants; power transmission; thermal limit or current-carrying capacity; voltage stability; wind turbine power output; transient stability; soft measures; wind energy spillage estimation; wind power penetration
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6131 (URN)10.1002/0470012684.ch20 (DOI)2-s2.0-38049167323 (Scopus ID)0-470-85508-8 (ISBN)
Note
QC 20100608Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2010-06-08Bibliographically approved
2. International Comparison of Requirements for Connection of Wind Turbines to Power Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International Comparison of Requirements for Connection of Wind Turbines to Power Systems
2005 (English)In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 8, no 3, 295-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Power production from wind turbines has increased considerably during the lost decade. Therefore today's wind turbines, which are typically set up in wind farms, have a significant influence on the operation of power systems. The efficient and secure operation of power systems is supported by grid codes, which are sets of requirements for all network users (suppliers, customers, etc.). In Europe, several transmission network operators have introduced special grid connection requirements for wind farms. These requirements are mainly based on existing grid codes, initially written for conventional power plants usually equipped with synchronous generators. This article presents a comparison of grid connection requirements for wind farms issued, or proposed as a draft, by transmission network operators in Denmark, Sweden, Germany, Scotland and Ireland.

Keyword
wind power production; grid code; connection requirements; fault ride-through; transient fault; wind turbine
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6132 (URN)10.1002/we.160 (DOI)000232022800004 ()2-s2.0-25144444348 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100608Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
3. Technical Regulations for the Interconnection of Wind Farms to the Power System
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technical Regulations for the Interconnection of Wind Farms to the Power System
2005 (English)In: Wind power in power systems / [ed] Ackermann, Thomas, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd , 2005, 115-142 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2005
Keyword
interconnection regulations; new wind farm control systems; International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC); Danish transmission system operators (TSOs); active power control; frequency control; reactive power compensation; tap-changing transformers; balance control approach; low and significant wind power penetration
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6133 (URN)10.1002/0470012684.ch7 (DOI)2-s2.0-84889294505 (Scopus ID)9780470855089 (ISBN)
Note
QC 20100608Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2010-06-08Bibliographically approved
4. Estimation of Potential Wind Energy Curtailment for Wind Power Plants in Power Systems with Bottleneck Problems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimation of Potential Wind Energy Curtailment for Wind Power Plants in Power Systems with Bottleneck Problems
2004 (English)In: EPE-PEMC'2004 / [ed] Ribickis, L., 2004Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6134 (URN)9984320464 (ISBN)
Conference
International Power Electronics and Motion Control Conference 2-4 September 2004, Riga, Latvia
Note
QC 20100608Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2010-07-14Bibliographically approved
5. Coordinated regulation of wind power and hydro power with separate ownership
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coordinated regulation of wind power and hydro power with separate ownership
2005 (English)In: Proceedings Hydropower'05, 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6135 (URN)
Conference
Hydropower’05, May 2005, Stavanger, Norway.
Note
QC 20100608Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2010-06-08Bibliographically approved
6. Short Term Hydro Power Planning Coordinated with Wind Power in Areas with Congestion Problems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Short Term Hydro Power Planning Coordinated with Wind Power in Areas with Congestion Problems
2007 (English)In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 10, no 3, 195-208 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, a day-ahead planning algorithm for a multi-reservoir hydropower system coordinated with wind power is developed Coordination applies to real situations, where wind power and hydropower are owned by different utilities, sharing the same transmission lines, although hydropower has priority for transmission capacity. Coordination is thus necessary to minimize wind energy curtailments during congestion situations. The planning algorithm accounts for the uncertainty of wind power forecast. Only planning for the spot market is considered. Once the production bid is placed on the market, it cannot be changed. The solution of the stochastic optimization problem should, therefore, fulfill the transmission constraints for all wind power production scenarios. An evaluation algorithm is also developed to quantify the impact from the coordinated planning in the long run. The developed planning algorithm and the evaluation algorithm are applied in a case study. The results are compared with uncoordinated operation. The results of the case study show that coordination with wind power brings additional income to the hydropower utility and leads to significant reduction of wind energy curtailments.

Keyword
wind power production; hydropower production; wind forecast uncertainty; power market; stochastic optimization; SCENARIO REDUCTION; SYSTEM; OPERATION; MARKET
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6136 (URN)10.1002/we.216 (DOI)000247219600001 ()2-s2.0-34250767737 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100608Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
7. Hydropower planning coordinated with wind power in areas with congestion problems for trading on the spot and the regulating market
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydropower planning coordinated with wind power in areas with congestion problems for trading on the spot and the regulating market
2009 (English)In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 79, no 1, 39-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper a day-ahead planning algorithm for a multi-reservoir hydropower system coordinated with wind power is developed. Coordination applies to real situations, where wind power and hydropower are owned by different utilities, sharing the same transmission lines, though hydropower has priority for transmission capacity. Coordination is thus necessary to minimize wind energy curtailments during congestion situations. The planning algorithm accounts for the uncertainty of wind power forecasts and power market price uncertainty. Planning for the spot market and the regulating market is considered in the algorithm. The planning algorithm is applied to a case study and the results are summarized in the paper.

Keyword
Wind power production; Hydropower production; Stochastic optimization; OPERATION; SYSTEM; GENERATION; PRODUCER
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6137 (URN)10.1016/j.epsr.2008.05.019 (DOI)000261306900005 ()2-s2.0-54049158045 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100608Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
8. Minimization of Imbalance Cost Trading Wind Power on the Short-Term Power Market
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Minimization of Imbalance Cost Trading Wind Power on the Short-Term Power Market
2006 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, ISSN 0885-8950, E-ISSN 1558-0679, Vol. 21, no 3, 1396-1404 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Present power markets are designed for trading conventional generation. For wind generation to participate in a short-term energy market, lengthy wind power production forecasts are required. Although wind speed forecasting techniques are constantly improving, wind speed forecasts are never perfect, and resulting wind power forecast errors imply imbalance costs for wind farm owners. In this paper, a new method for minimization of imbalance costs is. developed. Stochastic programming is used to generate optimal wind power production bids for a short-term power market. A Wind power forecast error is represented as a stochastic process. The imbalance costs resulting from this strategy are then compared to the case when wind power production bids on a short-term power market are based directly on a wind speed forecast.

Keyword
forecasting; optimization; power market; stochastic process; stochastic programming; wind power generation
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6138 (URN)10.1109/TPWRS.2006.879276 (DOI)000239355300043 ()2-s2.0-33747600422 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100608

Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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Output format
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