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A comprehensive study of resistor-loaded planar dipole antennas for ground penetrating radar applications
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
Abstract [en]

Ground penetrating radar (GPR) systems are increasingly being used for the detection and location of buried objects within the upper regions of the earth’s surface. The antenna is the most critical component of such a system. This thesis presents a comprehensive study of resistor-loaded planar dipole antennas for GPR applications using both theory and experiments. The theoretical analysis is performed using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique.

The analysis starts with the most popular planar dipole, the bow-tie. A parametric study is done to find out how the flare angle, length, and lumped resistors of the antenna should be selected to achieve broadband properties and good target detection with less clutter. The screening of the antenna and the position of transmitting and receiving antennas with respect to each other and ground surface are also studied. A number of other planar geometrical shapes are considered and compared with the bow-tie in order to find what geometrical shape gives the best performance. The FDTD simulations are carried out for both lossless and lossy, dispersive grounds. Also simulations are carried out including surface roughness and natural clutter like rocks and twigs to make the modeling more realistic.

Finally, a pair of resistor-loaded bow-tie antennas is constructed and both indoor and outdoor measurements are carried out to validate the simulation results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH , 2006. , xii, 54 p.
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2006:033
Keyword [en]
Ground penetrating radar, buried object detection, dipole antennas, FDTD methods, broadband properties, baluns, simulation, optimal design, lossy media, dispersive media, clutter.
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-4110ISBN: 91-7178-426-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-4110DiVA: diva2:10778
Public defence
2006-10-06, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, KTH, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20100923

Available from: 2006-09-21 Created: 2006-09-21 Last updated: 2012-10-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. A deep parametric study of resistor-loaded bow-tie 55 antennas for ground penetrating radar applications using FDTD
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A deep parametric study of resistor-loaded bow-tie 55 antennas for ground penetrating radar applications using FDTD
2004 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, ISSN 0196-2892, E-ISSN 1558-0644, Vol. 42, no 4, 732-742 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Resistor-loaded bow-tie antennas are analyzed thoroughly to find out their performance on ground-penetrating radar (GPR) applications. The analysis is done with the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. The antenna is pulse driven and enclosed in a rectangular conducting cavity. The ability to detect a buried conducting sheet using two such identical antennas for transmitting and receiving is investigated. Simulations are carried out for various antenna parameters like end resistor values, flare angle, and antenna length. The gap between the two antennas and their height above the ground are also varied. Moreover, the results are obtained for different sizes, depths, and positions of the buried sheet. It is studied how the broadband impedance characteristics and better target discrimination with low clutter can be achieved by optimally selecting these antenna parameters. Also, it will be shown that apart from the total parallel end resistance, the individual end resistor values and the number of resistors connected have no significant effect on the input impedance and the received signal.

Keyword
Buried-object detection; Clutter; Impedance matching; Radar antennas
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6145 (URN)10.1109/TGRS.2003.819442 (DOI)000220946000005 ()2-s2.0-2442561790 (Scopus ID)
Note
QC 20100818Available from: 2006-09-21 Created: 2006-09-21 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
2. A Complete FDTD Simulation of a Real GPR Antenna System Operating Above Lossy and Dispersive Grounds
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Complete FDTD Simulation of a Real GPR Antenna System Operating Above Lossy and Dispersive Grounds
2005 (English)In: Progress in Electromagnetic Research, ISSN 1559-8985, Vol. 50, 209-229 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is used to analyze a practical ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna system operating above lossy and dispersive grounds. The antenna is of the resistor-loaded bow-tie type and the analysis is made for two known soil types, namely Puerto Rico and San Antonio clay loams. The soil is modeled by a two term Debye model with a static conductivity and it is matched to the mentioned soils by using curve fitting. The FDTD scheme is implemented by the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) method together with the uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) absorbing boundary conditions (ABC). In order to model a real GPR environment, ground surface roughness and soil inhomogeneities are also included. The effect of soil properties on the GPR response and antenna input impedance is presented. Thus the ability to detect buried metal and plastic pipes is investigated.

Keyword
PENETRATING RADAR; MAXWELLS EQUATIONS; NUMERICAL-SOLUTION; MEDIA; SCATTERING; FREQUENCY
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6146 (URN)10.2528/PIER04061002 (DOI)000239278400009 ()2-s2.0-33847398780 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100818

Available from: 2006-09-21 Created: 2006-09-21 Last updated: 2012-10-02Bibliographically approved
3. Modeling and Investigation of Planar Parabolic Dipoles for GPR Applications: A Comparison with Bow-Tie Using FDTD
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Investigation of Planar Parabolic Dipoles for GPR Applications: A Comparison with Bow-Tie Using FDTD
2006 (English)In: Journal Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, ISSN 0920-5071, E-ISSN 1569-3937, Vol. 20, no 2, 227-236 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an analysis of planar parabolic shaped dipoles using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The antenna is resistor-loaded to improve the bandwidth and shielded to suit ground penetrating radar (GPR) applications. The clutter level and the GPR response of the antenna when it is operating above both lossless and lossy mediums are analyzed. The input impedance and the radiation characteristics of the antenna are also described. The results are compared with those of the resistor-loaded bow-tie to assess the antenna's performance.

Keyword
ground-penetrating radar, perfectly matched layer, antennas, simulation, media
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6147 (URN)000236106400008 ()2-s2.0-33645060745 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100923

Available from: 2006-09-21 Created: 2006-09-21 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. An Investigation of Some Geometrical Shapes and Selection of Shielding and Lumped Resistors of Planar Dipole Antennas for GPR Applications Using FDTD
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Investigation of Some Geometrical Shapes and Selection of Shielding and Lumped Resistors of Planar Dipole Antennas for GPR Applications Using FDTD
2006 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, ISSN 0196-2892, E-ISSN 1558-0644, Vol. 44, no 12, 3555-3562 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) antenna system is modeled using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain technique. This paper investigates some basic geometrical shapes for planar dipoles to find what shape gives the best performance for GPR applications. The antenna is resistor loaded and shielded by a rectangular conducting cavity to suit the application. The effect of adding a wave-absorbing coat to the shield is also studied. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the cavity height and the resistor values.

Keyword
absorbing media, buried-object detection, dipole antennas, genetic algorithms
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6148 (URN)10.1109/TGRS.2006.881747 (DOI)000242390700009 ()2-s2.0-33845666095 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20100830 Uppdaterad från accepted till published (20100830)

Available from: 2006-09-21 Created: 2006-09-21 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
5. Ground Penetrating Radar Measurements Using a Pair of Resistor-Loaded Bow-Tie Antennas
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ground Penetrating Radar Measurements Using a Pair of Resistor-Loaded Bow-Tie Antennas
2006 (English)Report (Other academic)
Series
Trita-EE, ISSN 1653-5146 ; 2006:032
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-6149 (URN)
Note

QC 20100923

Available from: 2006-09-21 Created: 2006-09-21 Last updated: 2012-10-02Bibliographically approved

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