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Perfect X-ray focusing via fitting corrective glasses to aberrated optics
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2017 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to their short wavelength, X-rays can in principle be focused down to a few nanometres and below. At the same time, it is this short wavelength that puts stringent requirements on X-ray optics and their metrology. Both are limited by today’s technology. In this work, we present accurate at wavelength measurements of residual aberrations of a refractive X-ray lens using ptychography to manufacture a corrective phase plate. Together with the fitted phase plate the optics shows diffraction-limited performance, generating a nearly Gaussian beam profile with a Strehl ratio above 0.8. This scheme can be applied to any other focusing optics, thus solving the X-ray optical problem at synchrotron radiation sources and X-ray free-electron lasers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2017. Vol. 8
Keyword [en]
Imaging and sensing, Microscopy, X-rays
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-203619DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14623ISI: 000395053700001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85014451131OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-203619DiVA, id: diva2:1082215
Note

QC 20170316

Available from: 2017-03-16 Created: 2017-03-16 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. High-Aspect Ratio Nanofabrication for Hard X-Ray Zone Plates
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High-Aspect Ratio Nanofabrication for Hard X-Ray Zone Plates
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Hard x-ray nanoimaging enables structural investigations of new materials for many applications. For high-resolution experiments, zone plate x-ray optics are commonly chosen.Two methods of zone plate nanofabrication are presented in this thesis.

Zone plates are circular diffraction gratings with radially decreasing grating period. Their optical resolution depends on the width of the smallest zone, which nowadays can be around 10 nanometers. However, the efficiency of a zone plate depends on its thickness and its material. For hard x-rays, the optimal zone plate thickness is in the order of micrometers. Therefore, high aspect ratio nanofabrication processes are needed.Two such methods are investigated in this study.

First, an existing tungsten nanofabrication process based on reactive ion etching (RIE) was extended to 22:1 aspect ratio structures at 30~nm line width. The core improvement was a resist curing step that enhanced pattern transfer during RIE. Such a zone plate with 200 micrometer diameter and 2.2% efficiency was used in the commissioning experiment of NanoMAX, the nanoimaging beamline at the Swedish synchrotron facility MAX IV. Transmission imaging with 40 nm resolution, as well as the fluorescence imaging modality were demonstrated.

Second, metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) of silicon using gold catalyst patterns was investigated. MACE dependence on gold pattern geometry, etching solution composition, temperature, and substrate doping is described. The process is characterized in terms of etching rate, directionality, and nanostructure surface roughness.

Finally, the Ronchi test is presented as a way to quickly judge the performance of x-ray optics in terms of present aberrations and x-ray sources in terms of coherence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2018. p. 64
Series
TRITA-SCI-FOU ; 2018:09
Keyword
nanofabrication, x-ray optics, zone plate, tungsten, silicon, reactive ion etching, metal-assisted chemical etching, Ronchi test
National Category
Physical Sciences
Research subject
Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-223958 (URN)978-91-7729-700-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-04-06, FB53, Albanova University Center, Roslagstullsbacken 21, Stockholm, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20180312

Available from: 2018-03-12 Created: 2018-03-09 Last updated: 2018-03-12Bibliographically approved

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