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Phytofiltration of arsenic by aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans)
KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2715-2931
Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden. (Plant Metal Group)
Department of Ecology, Environment & Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden. (Plant Metal Group)
2017 (English)In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work investigates whether aquatic moss (Warnstorfia fluitans) originating from an arsenic (As)-contaminated wetland close to a mine tailings impoundment may be used for phytofiltration of As. The aim was to elucidate the capacity of W. fluitans to remove As from arsenite and arsenate contaminated water, how nutrients affect the As uptake and the proportion of As adsorption and absorption by the moss plant, which consists of dead and living parts.

Arsenic removal from 0, 1, or 10% Hoagland nutrient solution containing 0–100 μM arsenate was followed over 192 h, and the total As in aquatic moss after treatment was analysed. The uptake and speciation of As in moss cultivated in water containing 10 μM arsenate or arsenite were examined as As uptake in living (absorption + adsorption) and dead (adsorption) plant parts.

Results indicated that W. fluitans removed up to 82% of As from the water within one hour when 1 μM arsenate was added in the absence of nutrients. The removal time increased with greater nutrient and As concentrations. Up to 100 μM As had no toxic effect on the plant biomass. Both arsenite and arsenate were removed from the solution to similar extents and, independent of the As species added, more arsenate than arsenite was found in the plant. Of the As taken up, over 90% was firmly bound to the tissue, a possible mechanism for resisting high As concentrations. Arsenic was both absorbed and adsorbed by the moss, and twice as much As was found in living parts as in dead moss tissue. This study revealed that W. fluitans has potential to serve as a phytofilter for removing As from As-contaminated water without displaying any toxic effects of the metalloid.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2017.
Keywords [en]
Absorption, Adsorption, Aquatic moss, Arsenic uptake, Arsenic removal, Arsenic speciation
National Category
Plant Biotechnology Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use Environmental Management Bioremediation
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering; Biotechnology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-204401DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.11.038ISI: 000431158900112Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85034056389OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-204401DiVA, id: diva2:1084246
Note

This work was funded by Environment Foundation (Miljöfonden) of the Swedish Engineers’ Association.

QC 20170406

Available from: 2017-03-24 Created: 2017-03-24 Last updated: 2018-05-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. ARSENIC REMOVAL BY PHYTOFILTRATION AND SILICON TREATMENT: A POTENTIAL SOLUTION FOR LOWERING ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN FOOD CROPS
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ARSENIC REMOVAL BY PHYTOFILTRATION AND SILICON TREATMENT: A POTENTIAL SOLUTION FOR LOWERING ARSENIC CONCENTRATIONS IN FOOD CROPS
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Use of arsenic-rich groundwater for crop irrigation can increase the arsenic (As) content in food crops and act as a carcinogen, compromising human health. Using aquatic plant based phytofiltration is a potential eco-technique for removing arsenic from water. The aquatic moss species Warnstorfia fluitans grows naturally in mining areas in northern Sweden, where high concentrations of arsenic occur in lakes and rivers. This species was selected as a model for field, climate chamber and greenhouse studies on factors governing arsenic removal and arsenic phytofiltration of irrigation water. The arsenic and silicon (Si) concentrations in soil, water and plant samples were measured by AAS (atomic absorption spectrophotometry), while arsenite and arsenate species were determined using AAS combined with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an anion exchange column. The arsenic content in grains of hybrid and local aromatic rice (Oryza sativa) cultivars with differing arsenic accumulation factor (AF) values was investigated in an arsenic hotspot in Bangladesh. The results showed that arsenic AF was important in identifying arsenic-safer rice cultivars for growing in an arsenic hotspot. The study based on silicon effect on arsenic uptake in lettuce showed that arsenic accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) could be reduced by silicon addition. The aquatic moss had good phytofiltration capacity, with fast arsenic removal of up to 82% from a medium with low arsenic concentration (1 µM). Extraction analysis showed that inorganic arsenic species were firmly bound inside moss tissue. Absorption of arsenic was relatively higher than adsorption in the moss. Regarding effects of different abiotic factors, plants were stressed at low pH (pH 2.5) and arsenic removal rate was lower from the medium, while arsenic efflux occurred in arsenate-treated medium at low (12°C) and high (30°C) temperature regimes. Besides these factors, low oxygenation increased the efficiency of arsenic removal from the medium. Finally, combining W. fluitans as a phytofilter with a lettuce crop on a constructed wetland significantly reduced the arsenic content in edible parts (leaves) of lettuce. Thus W. fluitans has great potential for use as an arsenic phytofilter in temperate regions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
KTH: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017. p. 49
Series
TRITA-LWR. PHD, ISSN 1650-8602 ; 2017:02
Keywords
aquatic moss, grain, rice, lettuce, macrophyte, phytoremediation, speciation, temperature, oxygenation, wetland.
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Other Environmental Engineering Botany Bio Materials Inorganic Chemistry
Research subject
Land and Water Resources Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-203995 (URN)978-91-7729-332-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-04-20, F3, Lindstedtsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

QC 20170323

Available from: 2017-03-23 Created: 2017-03-22 Last updated: 2017-03-24Bibliographically approved

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